Technical Sessions

The ESW features over 30 technical presentations aligned with our mission to accelerate application of breakthrough improvements in reduction of risk from electrical hazards. The ESW 2017 technical program will be selected from these papers currently under development:

Arc Flash\Blast am I really protected

- Brad Gradwell
This paper adopts a functional safety approach to determine the effectiveness of arc flash\blast mitigation techniques using the functional safety layer of protection approach.

NFPA70E-2015 Article 10 (G), [2], now embeds risk assessment and risk control using the hierarchy of control method in accordance with ANSI Z10. The formal adoption of risk management practices detailed in NFPA70E-2015 Informative Annex F Risk Assessment Procedure lends the assessment to calibration with the process and machinery safety standards, (ISA84.10, IEC 61508, IEC 61511, IEC 62061) for the determination of the reliability of safety systems.

Using this approach it is possible to determine the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) requirements of the Arc Flash\Blast system and design in the same manner as a process emergency shutdown system, and a machinery safety system.

Using the probability of dangerous failure approach we can use probabilistic analysis on the layers of protection to determine if the proposed system of arc flash mitigation meets occupational health and safety risk reduction levels or the likelihood of injury or damage to health, tolerance level for identified consequence severity levels.
Improved Arc Flash Energy Calculation Method and its Application in the Renewable Energy Design

- Afshin Majd
- Robert Luo
In this paper a new algorithm for the Arc Flash calculations is presented. The new method can be utilized in any software package, which performs arc flash calculations to deliver the incident energy, arc flash boundary, and other related parameters for the Arc Flash risk assessment purposes. The method provides a more sophisticated, and precise way of calculating short circuit contributions to the fault location. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of the presented method a typical renewable power plant (wind energy) with the common types of protection is analyzed. The arc flash risk assessment results are compared in both the conventional way vs. the presented method. The new approach is called "integrated method". This method is an excellent way of modelling the short circuit contribution of the devices, which can potentially change the total short circuit current at the fault location. The "integrated method" will consider the decay of the contributing machines, and also the devices, whose currents are interrupted due to a protection device.
Low-Voltage Arc Sustainability

- Marcia L Eblen, PE
- Tom A. Short
This paper covers research on low voltage arc flash. This paper will summarize the results of testing done at 480V and below in real equipment and simulated equipment configurations for maximum arc sustainability in absence of protective device tripping.

Extensive testing was conducted on actual electric meter enclosures, panels, network protectors, open air, cable trays, and terminations. Low voltage arc sustainability is highly dependent on enclosure geometry, electrode spacing and configuration, available fault current and power flow direction. This paper describes testing results that can be applied to provide guidance for estimating low voltage arc durations in equipment when protective device clearing times are 2 seconds or longer, allowing users to make more realistic estimates of expected incident energy exposures.
Hazards in the Installation and Maintenance of Solar Panels

- James White
- Mike Doherty
Solar panels are becoming popular in residential and some commercial sites for providing either the primary power source or a backup source of electricity. The advantages seem obvious and on the surface they seem to be a safe option. Solar panels do have many benefits, but there are also safety issues that come into play with them during their installation, maintenance and during emergency situations, such as during a fire. This paper discusses a quick overview of solar panel construction and then the safety issues that may be present.
Electrical Injury Drills: Approaches, Learnings, and Best Practices

- Christa A. Swafford
- Daniel R. Doan
- Michael Nagl
- Paul B. Sullivan
Electrical injury drills test a facility's emergency readiness and help identify learning and growth opportunities. Using data and observations from several electrical emergency drills, this paper examines a variety of approaches to electrical injury drills as well as the learnings and best practices which resulted.
Educating Students in Electrical Safety Practices and the Inclusion of Electrical Safety Material in Academic Curriculum

- Jay Prigmore
- Afshin Majd
This paper details the methods used to train undergraduate and graduate students on electrical safety in both their course and laboratory work. It also introduces them to Arc Flash and the associated hazards. Common Software packages used to determine incidents energy levels and mitigation methods are presented to the students as a tool to apply their knowledge to common industry examples.
When Establishing An Electrical Safety Work Condition Wasn't Enough

- Al Havens
What went wrong when an Electrical Safety Work Condition was verified and yet an arc flash occurred? This is the story about the incident and what could have prevented it from happening. The man did everything right. He locked out/tagged out the motor starter circuit breaker in the MCC. He measured the voltage on the target circuit and found zero volts. His job was to replace the control power transformer (CPT) in the starter. He almost had the CPT removed when an arc flash happened. What went wrong?
Worker Discharges Capacitive Build-up on Deenergized 13.8 kV line

- Wes Mozley
An electrical worker omitted some steps in an outage procedure, resulting in a static shock from a de-energized 13.8 kV line, nearly resulting in his death. This paper discusses the incident and the findings from the root cause analysis.
NFPA 70E-2018 Edition Changes

- Paul Dobrowsky
Learn what the significant changes to NFPA 70E-2018 are and how they will affect you and your business.

This presentation will cover the significant proposed changes to NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace. These changes will be based on actions taken at the NFPA 70E Committee's Second Draft Meeting.
Sharpening the Focus on Residual Risk: Psychology of Warnings, Administrative Controls and PPE

- Anna H.L. Floyd PhD
- H. Landis "Lanny" Floyd
This paper will explore the likelihood of human error and the psychological factors impacting the limitations of lower order risk controls to reduce residual risks in preventing injuries from electrical energy.
From Planned to Unplanned Outage

- Raymund J. Torres, PE
- Brian Boggan
This paper will share the user's experience with a planned maintenance outage that turned into an unplanned repair outage due to an arc flash incident.
Sometimes Overlooked Safety Concerns with Large Engineered ASD Systems

- Arthur J. Smith, III
- Dan Doan
This paper reviews some unique safety issues associated with large engineered drives and drive systems. Unfortunately, in many cases large drives are treated as "Black Boxes" and applied without sufficient understanding to identify and mitigate these concerns. This paper helps identify concerns associated with different drive topographies and proposes mitigation techniques.
Electrical fault during battery replacement results in second and third degree burn injuries to a worker

- Shahid Jamil
Discussion of injury associated with work with batteries, safety tips to prevent injuries, and applicable regulatory requirements.
The Electrical Safety Situation in Mexico

- Camilo Martinez
Many companies have become global, and Mexico is one of the main commercial partners of the USA, with an everyday increasing number of commercial, professional and technical interchanges. In this paper, the author explains how the electrical safety is perceived and treated in Mexico.
Equipment Control Processes Used for Electrical Safe Work Practice Compliance

- Robert S. LeRoy, CESCP
- Jeffrey Grovom
Disturbances to complex system processes are controlled with a combination of feedforward and feedback technologies. With relevant and timely data, this same methodology can be used to control compliance to electrical safe work practices.
What should you do when the lights go out?

- Greg Drewiske
- Austin Kalcec
Case study as mill creates an emergency preparedness plan following a major equipment outage and subsequent repair and return to service.
Changing the Electrical Safety Culture

- Daryld Ray Crow
- Danny Liggett
- Mark Scott
Electrical safety - Where were we yesterday? Where are we today? Where will we be in the future? The safety culture is continuing to evolve to provide a safer work environment for people working around electrical equipment. To improve electrical safety, it takes commitment to continuous improvement of the electrical safety culture. New thoughts and ideas to improve electrical safety are critical. This paper addresses how work practices have changed over time and recommends new ideas to upgrade then existing electrical culture. To change the existing safety culture we need to implement ideas that cause higher performance in electrical safety for all people exposed to electrical hazards.
Performing Risk Assessments for Shock and Arc Flash Hazards for all Forms of Electricity

- Lloyd B. Gordon
This paper presents a method of risk assessment for electrical work considering potential exposure to all forms of electricity, in all electrical work environments, for all industries. This risk assessment approach will include traditional AC power, DC, impulse, and radiofrequency sources.
Arc Flash Light Intensity Model

- Shiuan-Hau Rau
- Zhenyuan Zhang
- Wei-Jen Lee
- David A. Dini
Regarding the lack of understanding of the intense light emitted during arc flash events, this paper proposes an arc flash light intensity model based on the approximate 1500 arc flash testing data recorded by an arc flash light measurement system.
From the "Ground" Up Improving Electrical Safety for the Electrical Worker

- Jason Cole
As industry pursues safer workplaces and implementing electrical safety programs they face major challenges in engaging the worker and how to ensure knowledge retention. Over the past 5 years we have gone on a journey starting with a very small group of electricians focused on creating and delivering training to their peers. In 2015 this had blossomed to 160 electricians across four different areas in our plant attending our electrical safety training course and a plan to have all 300+ electricians' plant wide attend the training in 2016. This paper will discuss some of the roadblocks that were faced such as a large knowledge gap do to hiring freezes and attrition along with a major shift in the company moving away from both senior electrical leadership, as well as direct electrical front line supervision. We will also discuss the successes along the road and how we were able to engage all the employees across several different age demographics and bring them together to reach a common understanding when it comes to electrical safety and the standards we are held to.
Quality Inspection of Electrical PPE

- Robert Spang
Quality inspections of electrical personal protection equipment (PPE) is critical for the safety of the qualified electrical worker. Without the training to perform this inspection, using less than adequate PPE can be the equivalent of wearing no PPE. This case study shows how worker inspections averted potential harm.
Integrating Risk Assessment into ISM

- Andrew Olsen
- Jennifer Martin
- Kevin Holm
Incorporation of the Risk Assessment philosophy of NFPA 70E 2015 into the already proven Integrated Safety Management model provides an enhanced, inclusive, and continuous safety process.

NFPA 70E 2015 Risk assessment process is a complimentary addition to Integrated Safety Management (ISM). NFPA 70E provides guidance regarding a qualitative approach for risk assessment, including risk estimation and evaluation. The process is beneficial in developing protective measures to improve safety and reduce injury to workers health. Integrating this process with ISM core functions and guiding principles is a systematic, common sense approach to performing work safely.
Normal Operation: Establishing an Electrical Safety & Maintenance Culture

- Karl Cunningham
NFPA 70E-2015 introduced "Normal Operation" to the world. This requirement now provides electrical safety professionals an important tool to prevent accidents due to lack of care and maintenance. As well, it provides an additional tool to electrical maintenance personnel in need of more authority to perform "common sense" and/or standard preventive maintenance and repair to electrical equipment. This long overdue requirement is foundational to any electrical safety and maintenance program.

Responses to the "Normal Operation" requirement have been wide and varied. Some try to ignore it completely. Some have denied any practical application of the requirement. The author has endorsed it for a positive impact to drive home the importance of good care and maintenance of electrical equipment with his direct electrical maintenance reports, as well as management that often present road blocks for proper electrical maintenance. Neither the qualified nor the unqualified worker can dismiss electrical safety and maintenance from the proper and safe operation of the facility.

This paper demonstrates how "Normal Operation" from NFPA 70E has been used to meet electrical maintenance personnel in their job performance so as to integrate safety into maintenance and maintenance into safety. It served as an inroad to introduce and train on maintenance standards that assisted electrical professionals in providing the proper techniques and frequencies to maintain electrical equipment in their facility.
Electrical Safety Program Work Flow Process

- Terry Becker, P.Eng.
Energized electrical work tasks are executed following a "Work Flow Process." A company's Electrical Safety Program can use this process and a related flow chart to illustrate the steps required to be taken by a Qualified Person to ensure process and documentation requirements are fulfilled before energized electrical work is executed. An example "Work Flow Process" flow chart will be provided and the steps it outlines reviewed as applied from an employer's Electrical Safety Program and overall Occupational Health & Safety Management System.
Building trust and relationships between General Contractors and Electrical Subcontractors

- Matthew Smith
In the past, and currently, general contractors (GC) have been known to push the schedule to a point where a subcontractor (Sub) may overlook or deliberately take short cuts to meet deadlines. Taking a step back and looking at the larger picture, the goal for every project should be to build it safely, efficiently, and with quality, whether you are the GC or a Sub. The question we have to ask ourselves is "If the objectives of two companies run parallel then why is there so much resistance to working together as a team".

This paper will present some of the "best practices", innovative ideas, and electrical summits that have been developed to help overcome the barriers between GC and Subs.
Development and Integration of Electrical Safety Program into a New Production Facility's Pre-Commissioning and Startup Activities

- Mark S. Scarborough
- Josh D. Popp
- Michael Nagl
This paper describes the development and integration of an electrical safety program into the pre-commissioning and startup of a new green-field production facility. The training program, personnel protective equipment (PPE) selection, testing equipment, safety by design, and the safety activities and issues experienced during pre-commissioning of the electrical system is discussed.
Arc Length vs. Bus Gap Distance for Underground Cables

- Kenneth Cheng
- Stephen Cress
- Jack Craighead
This paper presents laboratory arc flash testing results for several types of underground cables widely used in one utility distribution system. It demonstrates the differences between bus gap distance and arc length, as well as the importance of using the arc length as one of the parameters when conducting incident energy calculations.
Developing a tool used to measure the effectiveness of the application of the investigation process

- Zarheer Jooma
- Jessica Hutchings
- Hugh Hoagland
- Ian R. Jandrell
The best investigation processes are useless if not applied effectively. Recurrent incidents become the commonplace whilst the organization continues to spent time, money and people resources investigating. This paper will allow you to determine where gaps in the process lie and how to plug these gaps.
Calculating Hazard Risk Categories for 208V, 3 Phase Systems

- Audrey (Kroon) Lowther
- Syed Rizvi
After numerous Short Circuit, Coordination and Arc Flash Studies it has become quite relevant the importance of including the entire electrical distribution system and not limit the study to 125KV and above. The following case studies will demonstrate the importance of Calculating Hazard Risk Categories for 208V, 3 Phase Systems. The DATA gathering of an Arc Flash Study must include the entire distribution system down to the 208V, the removal of panel covers to validate the installation and the field labeling of all devices. There should be no shortcuts on SAFETY; there should be no doubt left in the field, and cutting corners is endangering lives.
A Graphical Approach to Incident Energy Analysis

- Rick Lutz
- Max Charbonneau
- Michael Garcia
An alternative, graphical approach to incident energy analysis has the benefits of minimizing the effects of inaccuracies in study input data and ensuring that the maximum incident energy is determined. This removes the need to perform multiple iterations of analysis that are required with current methods.
Digitally Enhanced Switchgear Functionality

- Thomas Papallo
- Greg Morozzi
IEEE 1814 "Recommended Practice for Electrical System Design Techniques to Improve Electrical Safety" is including a section on enhanced digital substation functionality; commonly know as "smart substations". This paper provides insights to this new functionality. The safety enhancements of these features, which may not always be immediately obvious, are explored.
How My Policy Got in the Way of Our Safety

- Christopher J Pavese, PE
In Early 2012 one utility purchased anoth utility and was in the process of merging with a third utility. Shortly thereafter, the company began noticing a conflict in safety and management when it came to implementing safe work practices. The problem was there were separate safety policies from the individual companies with combined work forces from each company following their own policy and accidents were allowed to fill the gaps. This all came to a head in early 2014 when the copmany started recording 1 death per month and a Safety Steering Committee was brought together to come-up with a working solution to put Safety First in to practice. Within six months a new Safe Work Practice Program was implemented where each employee was responsible for developing a Individual Safety Plan based on their job classification. Within the ISP the employee and their manage identified the risks and required training then establish due dates for completion; furthermore, management tied 35% of the employee annual performance rating into the employees adherence to the ISP's implementation and completion.
Electrical Safety in Machinery (Process and Packaging)

- Sonny D. Dela
This paper review and discuss the electrical safety circuit and safety function requirement for process and packaging machinery. It discuss the solution to meet the OSHA requirement for alternative safe measures when performing minor servicing task without performing Lockout/Tagout. This paper also review how risk assessment is performed to determine the required safety circuit and safety function.