Technical Sessions

The ESW features over 30 technical presentations aligned with our m ission to accelerate application of breakthrough improvements in reduction of risk from electrical hazards.

Below you will find our latest schedule for the 2018 ESW.

Monday, March 19

7:30 - 8:00am IEEE P463 Working Group - Standard for Electrical Safety Practices in Electrolytic Cell Line Working Zones. Texas Ballroom B.

8:00 - 10:00am IEEE P1814 Working Group - Electrical System Design Techniques to Improve Electrical Safety. Texas Ballroom B.

10:00 - 12:00n IEEE P1584 Working Group - Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations. Texas Ballroom B.

1:00 - 3:00pm Electrical Safety Committee Meeting:

3:00 - 6:00pm Various Subcommittee meetings:

Tuesday, March 20

8:00 - 12:00n Tutorial 1: Electrical Safety Basics; Terry Becker, Lanny Floyd, René Graves. Texas Ballroom A.

8:00 - 12:00n Tutorial 2: 2018 Changes to NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace; Daleep Mohla, Ray Crow. Texas Ballroom C.

8:00 - 12:00n Tutorial 3: A Framework for Selection of Incident Energy Mitigation Technology; Antony Parsons. Texas Ballroom G.

11:00 - 1:30 Companions' Luncheon, Stockyard 1. (by invitation)

11:30 - 12:30 Authors' & Student Luncheon, Stockyard 2 (by invitation)

12:00 noon Tutorial Lunch: Texas Ballroom A - D. For Tutorials 1, 2 & 3 Registrants.

ESW 2018 Opening Session

1:00pm ESW2018-01: Welcome to ESW 2018: Ken White, Chair ESW 2018

1:30pm ESW2018-02: Keynote Presentation: Curtis Weber

2:15pm ESW2018-03: The Business Case for an Electrical Safety Program; Michael Kovacic,

3:00pm Refreshment Break

3:30pm ESW2018-04: Failures of Equipment Operating Under Normal Operating Conditions; Paul Sullivan,

3:45pm ESW2018-05: Solar Photovoltaic DC Array Characteristics and Safety; Peter McNutt, Bill Sekulic, Gary R. Dreifuerst,

4:30pm ESW2018-06: Student Focus Session Introduction, Payman Dehghanian

6:00-8:00pm Welcome Reception and Student Posters (5:00 - 7:00) Texas Ballroom Foyer “Prevention through Design Student Engineering Initiative Presentations"

  • David Alejandro, Universidad de Palermo,(Argentina):Safety Considerations in Smart Grid Low-Voltage Equipment Design
  • Iragaba Intwari, University of Texas at Arlington: Potential Impact of AC Frequencies on the Operation of Fuses,
  • Mohammad Heidari, Wichita State University: Enhancing Electric Safety by Designing Preventive and Corrective Policies in Cyber-Enabled Power Systems,
  • Kailun Shi, North China Electric Power University: Voltage Regulation in DC Distribution Networks with Electric Safety Considerations,
  • Liwen Dong, North China Electric Power University: On the Control of Power Electronic Converters for Electricity Grid Operation Safety and Stability

Wednesday, March 21

7:00am Workshop Breakfast: Texas Ballroom Foyer Authors' Breakfast, (by invitation)

7:45am Early Bird Prize Draw

8:00am ESW2018-07: Current Limiting Arc Flash Quenching System For Improved Incident Energy Reduction; Robert Burns, Adams Baker, Dan Hrncir,

8:45am ESW2018-08: Unforeseen Shock Hazards from Code Compliance at an above ground Pipeline Valve Station; Henry Clark, Bill Stewart,

9:00am ESW2018-09: Complete Electrical Risk Assessment Method; Lloyd B. Gordon, Tommy Martinez,

9:45am Refreshment Break

10:15am ESW2018-10: Risk Assessment Myth Busters; Daniel Roberts, L. René Graves,

11:00am ESW2018-11: Convincing the Craftsman - A Study of What Works and What Doesn't with Respect to Educating the Electrical Worker About Electrical Safety; Wes Mozley,

11:45am ESW2018-12: 2018 Electrical Safety Workshop; L. Rene' Graves

12:00 noon Lunch:

1:00pm ESW2018-13: Electrical Safety - A Community Service Project; Joe Rachford,

1:45pm ESW2018-14: Case History on a Tracking Arc; Zarheer Jooma, Hugh Hoagland, Robert W. Hines Jr.,

2:00pm ESW2018-15: Hazards and Safety When Working in Confined or Enclosed Workspaces; Dennis K. Neitzel, Alfonso A. Jo,

2:45pm ESW2018-16: Expo Introduction; Kevin Warren

3:00-6:00pm Product and Services Expo and Social The Latest in Technology and Services

Thursday, March 22

7:00am Workshop Breakfast: Texas Ballroom Foyer Authors' Breakfast, (by invitation)

7:45am Early Bird Prize Draw

8:00am ESW2018-17: Uncovering the Indicators that Lead to Disaster; Robert S. LeRoy,

8:45am ESW2018-18: IEEE/NFPA Research Collaboration Update; Mike Lang, Wei-Jen Lee,

9:00am ESW2018-19: Costa Rica Development towards Electrical Safety; German Moya,

9:45am Refreshment Break

10:15am ESW2018-20: Working Safely with Hazardous Capacitors; Mark A. Scott

11:00am ESW2018-21: Awards and Recognitions; Vince Saporita, Scott Seaver

12:00noon Lunch:

1:00pm ESW2018-22: 100 Years and Counting - What Have We Learned, What Can We Share; Mike Doherty, Al Winfield,

1:45pm ESW2018-23: What Occupational Injury Costs and Workers Compensation Tells Us about Electrical Injuries and the Need to Invest in Electrically Safer Workplaces; Tammy Gammon, Iragaba Intwari,

2:30pm ESW2018-24: A Planned Shutdown, A Thunderstorm, and Damaged Equipment; Michael Nagl

2:45pm Refreshment Break

3:00pm ESW2018-25: Clearing Time Considerations for DC Arc Flash Hazard Analysis of Battery Banks; Kyle D. Carr,

3:45pm ESW2018-26: Advancing Electrical Safety Programs with the Introduction Of Authorized Persons; Arunkumar Aravamudhan, Robert Wagner, Raymund Torres, Edward Bolton

4:30pm ESW2018-27: Focus Session Preview; Eva Clark

4:45 - 6:30pm Focus Session Presentations

  • ESW2018-37: Equipment Operation Near Power Lines; Jennifer L. Martin
  • ESW2018-38: Exploration of the Theory of Electric Shock Drowning; Jesse Alena Kotsch, Brandon Prussak, Michael Morse, James Kohl,
  • ESW2018-39: Reframing Our View of “Electrical" Injuries in the Workplace; Tammy Gammon, Wei-Jen Lee, Iragaba Intwari,
  • ESW2018-40: Service Entrance Disconnect Near Miss; Joel A. Pettit, Jose Chapa,
  • ESW2018-41: Using Spectrum of the Light for High Speed Arcing Fault Protection; Long Zhao, Kun-Long Chen, Shiuan-Hau Rau, Wei-Jen Lee,
  • ESW2018-42: Electrical fatality rate and epidemiology of electrocution in Japan, 2012 - 2014; Norimitsu Ichikawa
  • ESW2018-43: Calculating the Arc Flash Incident Energy in Single-Phase Systems Using a Three-Phase Model; Afshin Majd, Robert Luo, Marvin Devadass,
  • ESW2018-44: Development of a sensor to better inform thermal ratings of arc flash PPE; Joe Potvin, Tom Short,
  • ESW2018-45: Improving Safety Culture Among Non-Electrical Workers; Nehad El-Sherif, Juan R.Lahera, Susan C. Kidd

5:30-7:30pm Networking Social:

Friday, March 23

7:00am Workshop Breakfast: Texas Ballroom Foyer

7:00am Authors' Breakfast, (by invitation)

8:00am Early Bird Prize Draw

8:15am ESW2018-28: Effective Electrical Safety Program Training in Multi-Lingual/Cultural Environments; Michael Kovacic, Karl Cunningham,

9:00am ESW2018-29: Electrical Investigations: Common Electrical Safety Mistakes, and Lessons Learned; Jay Prigmore, Justin Bishop, John Martens

9:45am Refreshment Break

10:00am ESW2018- 30: Introduction to Electrical Safety in the High School for Prospective Engineering Students; Mark Scarborough

10:15am ESW2018-31: Incorporating NFPA 70E at a Utility; Andrew Olsen

11:00am ESW2018-32: Changing the Electrical Safety Culture at a Large Industrial Plant in the Middle East Region; Josh D. Popp, Nicolas Ghosn, Ahmad Saheb,

11:45am ESW2018-33: Workshop Review: Ken White Noon 2018 ESW adjourns

Post Workshop Tutorials

Noon Tutorial Lunch: TBD for Tutorials 4, 5 & 6 Registrants,

1:00 - 5:00pm Tutorial 4: Demonstration of Skills Through Practical Hands on Testing of Qualified Electrical Workers; Michael Kovacic, Karl Cunningham. Stockyard 1.

1:00 - 5:00pm Tutorial 5: Getting Started, Is Your Electrical Safety Program Making the Grade; Bob LeRoy, Jeff Grovom. Sundance 5.

1:00 - 5:00pm Tutorial 6: Electric arc protection perceptions and concerns: current state of standardization in IEEE, IEC, ASTM, and NFPA; Mikhail Golovkov. Sundance 1.

The ESW 2018 technical program will be selected from these papers currently under development:

Failures of Equipment Operating Under Normal Operating Conditions
Author(s):

- Paul Sullivan
Description: This paper will review three electrical equipment failures during substation circuit breaker operations where if personnel had been wearing NFPA 70E hazard/risk category 0 personal protective equipment, they could have been seriously injured during these failures due to the arc flash energy released at the time of the fault.

Abstract: Informational Note No. 1 for the definition of arc flash hazard in NFPA 70E-2012 states "under normal operating conditions, enclosed energized equipment that has been properly installed and maintained is not likely to pose an arc flash hazard." Table 130.7(C)(15)(a) shows a hazard/risk category of 0 for operating a circuit breaker or fused switch, with the enclosure doors closed, in 600 Volt class switchgear and switchboards. This paper will review three electrical equipment failures during substation circuit breaker operations where if personnel had been wearing NFPA 70E hazard/risk category 0 personal protective equipment, they could have been seriously injured during these failures due to the arc flash energy released at the time of the fault.
A Planned Shutdown, A Thunderstorm, and Damaged Equipment
Author(s):

- Michael Nagl
Description: This case study will discuss and uncover the safety concerns while working during a thunderstorm. The paper will also include the incident investigation that followed from the damaging effects when lightning struck the equipment downstream.

Abstract: I would like to present a fifteen-minute case study that I was directly involved with. The presentation will discuss: planning a shutdown with an impending thunderstorm, continuing to work through the thunderstorm until the shutdown was successfully completed, a bolt of lightning striking our site 45 minutes later and the resulting damage from the strike. I would like to discuss and show the timeline leading up to the event, the pictures from the incident, and the learning coming out of the incident investigation that I believe everyone could benefit from.
Introduction to Electrical Safety in the High School for Prospective Engineering Students
Author(s):

- Mark Scarborough
Description: This paper describes how electrical safety was introduced to high school students enrolled in a STEM program called Project Lead the Way (engineering pathway). The paper will provide information on how the program was develop / presented, how it was received, and the results of their homework assignments.

Abstract: This paper describes the experience of how electrical safety was introduced to high school students enrolled in a STEM program called Project Lead the Way (PLTW) which is a non-profit organization that has developed programs that teach skills such as critical and creative thinking, collaboration, and problem solving based on the development of technical knowledge. The specific program taught at a local high school is the PLTW engineering pathway. In discussions with the program teacher during a project review meeting for a senior class, the offer of providing a basic introduction to electrical safety was presented. The current plan is to present some electrical safety basics to a group of students in the program during the month of May. Topics will be IEEE, ESFi, electrical engineering with a focus on the power / industrial side (i.e. the hazards), and electrical safety around their homes. This paper will describe how the presentation was developed, presented to the students, received by the students, and the results of their homework assignments. The intention of this program is to create interest in electrical engineering with a focus on electrical safety.
Case History on a Tracking Arc
Author(s):

- Zarheer Jooma
- Elihu (Hugh) Hoagland
- Robert W. Hines Jr.
Description: A lineman contractor was severely injured from an arc flash incident. The investigation found that the arc rated PPE was inadequate. A Subject Matter Expert, who was later introduced, performed “tracking arc" tests that challenged the findings. This case history demonstrates the importance of the subject matter experts in investigations.

Abstract: An arc flash incident left a lineman contractor at a utility severely injured. During the subsequent incident investigation, several recommendations for improvement followed. One such recommendation was the need to invest in “better" arc rated personal protective equipment. The investigation team used the best in-house knowledge available at the time. Just before investing in the PPE replacement program, however, an independent expert was involved. The research and arc flash testing that ensued provided ground breaking findings (such as producing a “tracking arc") that challenged and changed certain assumptions made during the original investigation. This case history demonstrates the important role of the subject matter expert in the investigation process.
Case Study: Unforeseen Shock Hazards from Code Compliance at an above ground Pipeline Valve Station
Author(s):

- Henry Clark
- Bill Stewart
Description: A case study of a cathodically protected pipeline isolation system that exposed a worker to a higher than expected voltage and unexpected hazard when work was performed at a valve station.

Abstract: The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is a regulatory collection of general and permanent rules of federal agencies. This case study is specific to two sections pertaining to the control of corrosion and electrical protection of underground pipe lines and valve stations. The transportation of hazardous liquids is covered by 49 CFR 195, and the transportation of natural gasses is covered by 49 CFR 192. One method of meeting compliance is with the installation of devices to electrically isolate a cathodically protected pipe line and valve stations from nearby grounded structures and equipment. This case study focuses on an industrial installation where a worker was inadvertently exposed to higher than expected voltages after the installation of the required isolation devices when performing work at a valve station.
When Maintenance Error is the Cause of Electrical Injury - Lessons from Aviation Safety
Author(s):

- H. Landis "Lanny" Floyd
Description: Maintenance errors are the 2nd leading cause of inflight fatalities in commercial aviation. This paper will draw inferences from published research on managing maintenance errors in aviation safety and review practices applicable to preventing maintenance errors in electrical equipment and systems that could result in latent failures and injuries.

Abstract: This paper will explore maintenance errors in electrical systems, how these failures can result in latent failures and ultimately impact personnel safety. The paper will draw inferences from published research on maintenance errors in aviation safety. Studies have shown maintenance error is the 2nd leading cause of inflight fatalities in US commercial aviation. From 1994 to 2004, maintenance problems have contributed to 42% of fatal airline accidents in the United States. The extraordinary improvement in commercial aviation safety since the 1930s is largely attributed to the development and application of systems safety engineering. This safety management methodology, which includes risk mitigation of maintenance errors, evolved in response to concerns with rapid development of aviation, nuclear power and other technological developments that have such catastrophic consequences that having the first mishap is unacceptable. It is well established that maintenance is essential to safety and reliability of electrical equipment and systems. However, electrical maintenance typically involves removal and replacement of large numbers of varied components, often carried out in cramped, ill-lit spaces, sometimes with less-than-adequate tools, and frequently under severe time pressure. Workers performing critical maintenance tasks may be using procedures and manuals written by people who had never performed the activity under real life or existing conditions. The paper will include examples of latent failures caused by maintenance errors and discuss techniques used in aviation safety that can be applied to electrical maintenance.
Arc Flash Pressure Wave Effect on Worker Using Simulated Equipment
Author(s):

- Hugh Hoagland
- Claude Maurice
- Wei-Jen Lee
- Andre Maurice
Description: New data for arc blast pressures and energy potentially transferred to a worker in door ejection and with an open door.

Abstract: Using a metal enclosure similar to the IEEE 1584 box and evaluating arc blasts from 10kA to 40kA, these experiments will evaluate the force of a door on a load cell to approximate energy transfer to a worker in an arc blast event. Piezo Sensors will be used in the cabinet and a modified pressure sensor will be used in the room outside of the cabinet. This will expand on previous work with an unsecured door to higher current levels but will add a load cell to measure energy transferred from the door. Additionally the same box with two levels of shear pins will be used to hold the door in place longer to allow more pressure to build before venting to further develop a model for arc blast pressure wave. This data will be applied to the Clark Doughty formula previously found helpful to further assist in hazard assessment.
Risk Assessment Myth Busters
Author(s):

- Daniel Roberts
- L. René Graves
Description: What is the difference between risk assessment and risk management? Are hazards controlled, or is risk controlled, or both? Can a hazard be “engineered out"? Is Lockout “hazard elimination"? What are the two basic risk assessment methods and how can they be applied to electrical safety?

Abstract: I have seen the future of electrical safety, and it is… risk assessment. Or so it would seem, based on how the concept of risk assessment has become prevalent in Standards, papers and presentations over the last few years. Is the future of electrical safety, or is it risk management? This paper explores the rise in acceptance of risk assessment in the electrical safety world. It also discusses the difference between risk assessment and risk management, hazards and risk, and the two basic risk assessment approaches.
Electrical Safety - A Community Service Project
Author(s):

- Joe Rachford
Description: This paper describes how to reach out to local High School Technology Centers and Community Colleges. It will list various electrical safety concepts that could be covered in an electrical safety seminar. Any qualified electrical person with a sense of community pride will be able to give these seminars.

Abstract: Most companies have in their Mission Statements some wording to the effect they will provide support to the local community. Generally, this involves some form of monetary support for various projects requested from the community. This paper will describe an alternate approach for providing community support by actually going to the local High School Technology Centers or Community Colleges and offering to do a Basic Electrical Safety Seminar for the students. The paper will be written as a “How To Guide" so that any qualified electrical person can reach out to the schools and offer a Basic Electrical Safety seminar.

The goal of the IEEE Electrical Safety Workshop is to Change the Electrical Safety Culture. What better way to do that than to reach out to young people in the High Schools or Community Colleges before they have had a chance to learn bad habits with energized electrical devices. The secondary benefit of this project is it will introduce your company to a school full of future employees. So it is a Win-Win relationship for both sides.

The paper will give suggestions on how to reach out to the schools. It will then go into a list of various electrical safety concepts that should be covered in the seminar. A qualified electrical person with a sense of community pride will be able to give this seminar. Think of the future lives that could saved by reaching out to a group of young people.
100 Years and Counting - What Have We Learned, What Can We Share
Author(s):

- Mike Doherty
- Al Winfield
Description: Come and hear what two caring individuals who have been workers, supervisors, electrical skills / safety trainers and health & safety professionals with 100 years and counting of combined experience in multiple companies within diverse electrical trades have learned from their own work and importantly from others along the way.

Abstract: The high voltage transmission / distribution utilities, power generation, commercial, industrial and construction electrical sectors have much to learn and share from each other regarding electrical safety. These sectors have developed innovative best practices within the confines of their own work programs over the years but most often have not pooled that collective knowledge effectively enough between themselves.

High functioning leading edge learning organizations from these electrical sectors realized a long time ago that there are far more similarities than differences between them when it comes to electrical safety and the potential exposures to those toxic energies. This paper will explore and describe in detail some of the opportunities for positive and proactive improvement between these segments of the electrical industry.

These opportunities can be used by anyone to significantly advance the electrical safety culture within their organization. Benchmarking effective techniques such as “quality" tailboards or pre-job briefs, execution of risk assessment procedure to obtain an output of residual risk, using clarity as the critical tool for world class communication in field scenarios will be explored and more. The soft skills that need to be used by those doing hard work. If you need to change and upgrade your electrical safety culture this will be an empowering and enlightening journey.
What Occupational Injury Costs and Workers Compensation Tells Us about Electrical Injuries and the Need to Invest in Electrically Safer Workplaces
Author(s):

- Tammy Gammon
- Iragaba Intwari
Description: The costs of occupational injury and workers' compensation premiums justify investments made in creating electrically safer workplaces. The quality of healthcare and income sustainment provided to workers after electrical injuries do occur reinforce the need for greater investment in preventing electrical injuries which destroy lives and families.

Abstract: In a companion paper, the 2011-2015 Bureau of Labor Statistics data are used to identify recent trends in fatal and nonfatal electrical injuries and injuries to electrical workers. This paper examines the cost of occupational injury and illness and the available workers' compensation data from four states to: 1) identify trends in electrical and all occupational injuries, and 2) more importantly, determine if the cost invested in electrical safety is justified. The financial costs of electrical and all occupational injuries and workers' compensation premiums justify investment in creating electrically safer workplaces. The workers' compensation system and its recent trends were also studied. Although employers and society spend large sums on workplace injuries, the workers' compensation system often fails to provide the best medical care to the injured and the level of income support truly needed to sustain a family. The human cost of electrical and occupational injuries demands investment in preventing injuries which destroy lives and families.
Convincing the Craftsman - A Study of What Works and What Doesn't With Respect to Educating the Electrical Worker About Electrical Safety
Author(s):

- Wes Mozley
Description: It is one thing for an employer to implement an electrical safety program. It is another thing entirely to obtain full craft-level buy-in and compliance and to accomplish ‘the required self-discipline for all employees who must perform work that may involve electrical hazards.'

Abstract: While many large industries and industrial contractors have embraced the NFPA 70E and implemented robust electrical safety programs, there is still an enormous segment of the electrical industry and industry in general that have not started down the safety path. Even companies with vigorous safety programs may still meet with pockets of resistance to some of the requirements as a result of experienced craftsmen who come from an era where energized work was the norm and expected, some of the general machismo present in the electrical industry, or a basic lack of understanding of the ‘why' behind the requirements.

This paper discusses some of the obstacles that will be faced by companies and contractors as they progress on their electrical safety journey. It discusses approaches that have succeeded and approaches that have failed and emphasizes the need for management to believe in and understand what they are saying and what they are requiring so they can effectively communicate the why of the requirements to the craftsmen in the field.
Hazards and Safety When Working in Confined or Enclosed Workspaces
Author(s):

- Dennis K. Neitzel
- Alfonso A. Jo
Description: Working in confined or enclosed spaces can be more hazardous than regular work spaces for many reasons, one of which is atmospheric. Other hazards such as shock and arc flash can also be extreme hazards in these spaces due to close working areas that permit only limited movement.

Abstract: Many workers are injured and killed each year while working in confined or enclosed spaces. An estimated 60% of the fatalities have been among the would-be rescuers. A confined or enclosed space can be more hazardous than regular work spaces for many reasons, one of which is atmospheric, which is the number one hazardous condition. This will be addressed along with electrical hazards in these spaces. Employees working in confined or enclosed work spaces such as manholes, utility vaults and tunnels, or other similar confined or enclosed spaces, that contain exposed energized conductors or circuit parts, or conductors that are not racked properly, damaged, or where the racks are damaged, must be provided with, and must use, electrical protective shields, barriers, or insulating materials as needed to prevent inadvertent contact with these energized parts. Arc flash is especially hazardous in these spaces due to the inability to dissipate the energy, which is now more concentrated. All doors and hinged panels that could swing into an employee and cause him or her to contact exposed energized parts must be secured before work begins. Work performed within confined or enclosed spaces must comply with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.146, 1910.269(e), and 1926.953 requirements, National Electrical Safety Code (NESC), ANSI/IEEE C2 Parts 3 and 4, as well as the safeguards for personnel protection requirements of 1910.335.
The Business Case for an Electrical Safety Program
Author(s):

- Karl Cunningham - Michael Kovacic
Description: It is taboo to consider a price tag on safety. Yet, we do it whether we realize it or not. This paper demonstrates that a safety program has a cost benefit business case even if we placed a zero cost value on life and health.

Abstract: In a society that places life as a basic right, it is assumed that a safety program that protects life does not require a business case and should never be considered in those terms. However, in the global economy we are faced with cultures that do not have the same belief in the right to life and may not put a “priceless" value on loss-of-life. As well, in the “right to life" countries we are still faced with risk assessments that categorize risks based on probability and severity of an accident. The results do not arrive at a “bottom line" financial value to justify expenditure necessary to mitigate the hazard. Thus, the electrical safety program is still left to the subjective mindset of the management; electrical and non-electrical.

Now that the US consensus standard for electrical safety in the workplace, NFPA 70E, has most clearly recognized that the condition of electrical equipment and maintenance is a necessary consideration into the electrical safety program, companies must develop their electrical maintenance program in harmony with the safety program.

This paper demonstrates that a good electrical safety program coupled with a good electrical maintenance program will lead to higher reliability, longer life of equipment, and the lowest total cost of ownership. There is heavy reliance on anecdotal data (incidents) to demonstrate the losses associated with failures that were also safety accidents or near misses. The focus attempts to show the business losses that result from unsafe behaviors.
Working Safely with Hazardous Capacitors
Author(s):

- Mark A. Scott
Description: This paper describes concrete methods for identifying hazards and assessing risk associated with capacitor stored energy, including shock, arc flash, short-circuit heating, and acoustic energy release, and details the combination of engineered safeguards and safe work practices to be applied by qualified persons to establish an electrically safe work condition.

Abstract: This paper describes concrete methods for identifying hazards and assessing risk associated with capacitor stored energy. It builds on previous research to establish practical thresholds for the various hazards associated with stored capacitor energy, including shock, arc flash, short-circuit heating, and acoustic energy release. This paper also details the combination of engineered safeguards and safe work practices to be applied by qualified persons for various configurations, such as hard vs. soft grounding and discharge wait times.
Effective Electrical Safety Program Training in Multi-Lingual/Cultural Environments
Author(s):

- Michael Kovacic
- Karl Cunningham
Description: This paper discusses techniques to overcome culture/language barriers in electrical safety training. Among these is creating an interactive environment between the trainer and students, ensuring no cultural group or individual fails to understand electrical safety needs. Discussed is the use of workshops, hands-on exercises, prizes, and more, used to break down walls.

Abstract: The worlds' global economy presents many challenges for companies seeking to establish a consistent electrical safety program. Many areas of the US have work forces where English may not be a first language. As well, foreign upbringing and schooling brings cultural, experiential and legal differences from US nationals that can lead to very different paradigms and interpretation of programs and training. Alternatively, US companies attempting to establish a global presence in foreign locations can be met with an even more pronounced multilingual/cultural challenge.

Many foreign cultures do not embrace electrical safety standards, or do not have any significant enforcement toward the same. Western corporate cultures attempting to establish an electrical safety culture in foreign locations are often met with significant barriers. These barriers include multinational workforces utilizing labor from multiple impoverished countries with separate languages and cultures.

Developing effective training programs that successfully impart the necessary safety requirements as skills and knowledge can be a seemingly insurmountable task. Many imported expat laborers from impoverished areas of the world feel they are expendable and uncared for, and expect to work unsafe and be treated poorly. These workers bring with them a lack of basic safety understanding and awareness due to the conditions that may exist in their original home country.

This paper discusses some of the techniques utilized to overcome the above mentioned barriers in electrical safety training. Chief among these techniques is creating an interactive environment between the trainer and all of the individuals - ensuring that no cultural group or individual fails to grasp the necessary electrical safety understanding due to a language or cultural barrier, or combination of the two. Discussed is the use of workshops, hands-on exercises, prizes, contests, and a respect for culture, that are used to break down the walls.
Uncovering the Indicators that Lead to Disaster
Author(s):

- Robert S. LeRoy
Description: One of the hardest things company management has to do is after an incident or accident has taken place. This paper will list key milestones in both company documented directions and worker's implementation filtered through their skills of the trade, knowledge of the task and rules guiding their action.

Abstract: One of the hardest things safety professionals, managers, front line supervisors and design engineers have to do is after an incident or accident has taken place. Discovering the key indicators on how a highly skilled, trained, competent and qualified worker managed to get themselves hurt is both excruciating painful and time critical. Ensuring a similar incident cannot occur is essential. If US OSHA conclusions are true, that approximately 80% of all accidents happen due to something a worker did or failed to do, there must be equal of greater attention given to the preparation of every job task as there is during its performance. Every element has varying importance but combined provide the greatest level assurance that qualified workers can safely perform required assigned tasks. This paper will list key milestones in both company documented directions and worker's implementation filtered through their skills of the trade, knowledge of the task and rules guiding their actions.
Solar Photovoltaic DC Array Characteristics and Safety
Author(s):

- Peter McNutt
- Bill Sekulic
- Gary R. Dreifuerst
Description: We explain basic operating and design principles and safety aspects of PV DC arrays. We include factors that affect power output, typical configurations, sizing, and design guidelines. We discuss array testing, safe operating procedures, arc-flash potential and whether moonlight and artificial lights truly pose a hazard.

Abstract: Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems are common and growing with 42.4 GW of installed capacity in the U.S. (almost 15 GW was added in 2016). This paper will help electrical workers and emergency responders understand the basic operating principles and hazards of PV DC arrays. We briefly discuss the following aspects of solar photovoltaic (PV) DC systems: the effects of solar radiation and temperature on output power; PV module testing standards; common system configurations; a simple PV array sizing example; NEC guidelines and other safety features; DC array commissioning, periodic maintenance and testing; arc-flash hazard potential; how electrical workers and emergency responders can and do work safely around PV arrays; do moonlight and artificial lights pose a real danger?; typical safe operating procedures; and other potential DC-system hazards to be aware of. We also present some statistics on PV DC array electrical incidents and injuries. Safe PV array operation is possible with a good understanding of PV DC arrays basics and having good safe operating procedures in place.
Costa Rica Development towards Electrical Safety
Author(s):

- German Moya, PE
Description: Tracing the history of engineering decision will forecast the outcome of the situation.

Abstract: This paper will follow the course of actions taken over last decades from the Board of Engineering from Costa Rica, (Colegio Federado de Ingenieros y de Arquitectos de Costa Rica, CFIA) towards electrical safety by design and best practices. Argumentation regarding the actions and the concerns the body of engineers have had and how that has affect the work field. The official Census Council of Statistics will support the results of the decision made by the CFIA and its regulatory bodies.
Electrical Investigations: Case Studies, Common Electrical Safety Mistakes, and Lessons Learned
Author(s):

- Jay Prigmore
- Justin Bishop
- John Martens
Description: This paper presents case studies, common mistakes, and lessons learned regarding electrical safety during electrical equipment failure investigations.

Abstract: Electrical equipment failures often result in troubleshooting or root cause investigations that may be undertaken by maintenance personal, electricians, or investigative experts. The training, education and knowledge of safe electrical work practices may vary among these individuals. In our experience, it is not uncommon for individuals conducting the electrical equipment troubleshooting or inspection activities, especially during the troubleshoot phase, to make assumptions that not only put themselves in danger but also potentially jeopardize the lives of others that are assisting with the troubleshooting or investigative activity. This paper will present some common and fundamental electrical safety mistakes made by those conducting electrical equipment failure investigations. Several case studies will be discussed and lessons learned will be presented.
Effective Implementation Field Level Risk Assessment
Author(s):

- Keith Camp
- David Hagen
Description: In May 1998 the Construction Owners Association of Alberta developed a presentation on Field Level Hazard Assessment process at a workshop in Edmonton. The recognized Industries injury rates increasingly finding incident causes as “Failure to recognize hazards". This Task Based Hazard Assessment was determined as an important tool that could be used to reduce human suffering to workers as a result of workplace incidents. It was also found if used correctly it could eliminate potential losses to property, materials, or the environment. At this time a procedure was built with the breakdown of how this tool would be applied in the field to the worker.

Abstract: Industries in Canada are constantly changing and affecting the thousands of companies within them. As new technology is created, companies are forced to adapt to the changes and challenges they are faced with in order to continually provide quality products and quality services. The oil and gas industry is a demanding one, not only for the oil and gas producers themselves, but for the everyday workers at the forefront of the industry. Companies and workers are faced with challenges of being exposed to new hazards as oil and gas clients are implementing new types of electrical equipment, piping equipment, structural equipment, and tools. According to Workers Compensation Board, the average fatality rate from 2010-2014 in Alberta is 152. Learnings in our industry from incident investigations, have frequently highlighted the understanding of root causes to be inadequate when reviewing a Field Level Hazard Assessment. Task, Hazards and Controls have either been identified inadequately or not at all. Workers have not used the Field Level Hazard Assessment as a tool for which it was meant to be used for. Through a proactive Occupational Health and Safety Management System, a higher level understanding of new hazards in any workplace can be developed through initial training, in field review/coaching, a scoring system broken down by a foreman, and ultimately having the supervisor chart the results with a set goal of achievement.
Clearing Time Considerations for DC Arc Flash Hazard Analysis of Battery Banks
Author(s):

- Kyle D. Carr, PE
Description: This paper reviews the various commonly used DC arc flash hazard analysis calculation methods and proposes approaches for clearing times based on TCC for typical protective devices. The configurations used are for UPS battery banks but are applicable for most DC power systems of know characteristics.

Abstract: Since empirical calculation methods of Arc Flash for DC systems are still in development, several types of models and equation approaches are available for use with varying degrees of success in estimating a conservative number for DC arc flash hazard analysis. The main undetermined variable for any of these calculations is the clearing time of any protective devices that may relate to the system configuration. The utility of the arcing currents derived from the DC arc flash calculation methods available does not always correlate well with estimating realistic clearing times for protective devices. This paper reviews the various commonly used calculation methods and proposes approaches for bracketing usable clearing times for calculations based on Time-Current Curves (TCC) for typical protective devices used in industry for battery banks. Methods reviewed would include the Maximum Power Method described in "Arc Flash Calculations for Exposures to DC Systems" by D.R. Doan and the Ammerman method using the Stokes-Oppenlander model as described in "DC-Arc Models and Incident-Energy Calculations" by R.F. Ammerman, et al. The result will be a systematic application of the models with varying degrees of complexity to address the needs of determining PPE for work on typical exposed DC Battery Banks such as those commonly employed in facility Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS). The methods used are directly applicable to other DC applications if the appropriate clearing time information and voltage current curves
Incorporating NFPA 70E at a Utility
Author(s):

- Andrew Olsen
Description: An arc flash event revealed the need for an significant change in the electrical safety program for this utility. This paper documents the process and reveals the best practices associated.

Abstract: In 2015, Priest Rapids dam experienced an event that burned 6 people due to a 13.8 KV arc flash event. This event opened the eyes on a severely deficient electrical safety culture in the power production side of the business. When looking to the NESC for guidance in the electrical work practices they needed to adopt, it came up short. After having a commercial nuclear facility come in to perform the root cause analysis, it was recommended that they start incorporating NFPA 70E. In 2017, the company adopted a new electrical safety program that was based on the practices described in NFPA 70E. This paper will describe the process of shifting the safety culture and challenges of applying safety practices and complying from multiple standards (NESC, OSHA, State codes, and NFPA 70E). One major difficulty was incorporating Restricted and Limited Approach Boundaries while other drivers referenced Minimum Approach Distances.
Current Limiting Arc Flash Quenching System For Improved Incident Energy Reduction
Author(s):

- Robert Burns, PE
- Adams Baker
- Dan Hrncir, PE
Description: This paper discusses the different methods of reducing incident energy in electrical equipment. It will describe how each method, listed in the National Electric Code Article 240.87, works and how new technologies continue to reduce the amount of time the arcing fault persist in the equipment.

Abstract: In response to a growing concern to mitigate arc flash incident energy hazards, the latest edition of the National Electric Code NFPA70-2017 includes requirements for reducing clearing time of overcurrent protective devices with a continuous current ratings of 1200A or higher. Article 240.87 lists seven options for reducing arc fault energy. This paper will briefly review the defined methods of reducing incident energy as outlined in the Standard, with focus on option 4: energy-reducing arc flash mitigation systems.

Today's arc flash mitigation systems with sensors that detect both light and elevated system current caused by an arc event have demonstrated excellent response times. These coupled with a “crowbar" device that intentionally creates a three-phase bolted fault collapsing system voltage, almost immediately drive arc flash heat energy and blast pressure to zero. One undesirable outcome using this approach is the creation of an intentional three-phase bolted fault which must then be cleared by an upstream protective device. Stresses on aging distribution systems caused while the bolted fault is cleared and possible false crowbar actuation when a feeder circuit breaker interrupts a downstream fault has given system engineers pause in applying this approach. New technology applied in low-voltage systems offers engineered solutions focused on arc quenching as an alternative to the crowbar, delivering similar high performance in sub-cycle arc mitigation without the incidence of bolted fault conditions. This paper will review existing and emerging designs of sub-cycle arc mitigation and discuss application alternatives for these new systems. Test guidelines defining arc quenching performance including UL2748 will be reviewed. Considerations on the impact of arc flash calculations as defined by IEEE1584 “Guide for Performing Arc Flash Calculations" and arc tested switchgear as defined by IEEE/ANSI C37.20.7 “Guide for Testing Metal-Enclosed Switchgear Rated Up to 38kV for Internal Arcing Faults" will be discussed.
Changing the Electrical Safety Culture at a Large Industrial Plant in the Middle East Region
Author(s):

- Josh D. Popp
- Nicolas Ghosn
- Ahmad Saheb
Description: This paper describes the process of implementing an electrical safety program for a large industrial plant in the Middle East region and cultural challenges faced in its implementation and that of similar regional industrial manufacturers.

Abstract: Industries other than oil and gas in the Middle-East region have grown quickly over the last decades to meet the increase in demand of emerging local and international markets at competitive prices. Upgrades and modifications to these industrial processes under different international standards leads to situations in which heterogeneous and fragmented electrical systems are installed and operated without having proper electrical safety programs in place. Electrical hazards associated with high and low voltage systems are not fully understood, calculated, and mitigated for all personnel. This paper describes the process of implementing an electrical safety program for a large industrial plant in the Middle East region and cultural challenges faced in its implementation and that of similar regional industrial manufacturers.

An approach to gap assessment, targeted hazard mitigation programs, electrical safety program development, and training of personnel is provided. This approach was used with the goal of establishing good foundations, capabilities, and processes to address electrical risk and sustain continuous improvements. The implementation of an Electrical Safety Program that pro-actively manages and mitigates Arc Flash and Shock Hazards and puts in place a corporate independent governance structure that includes electrical practitioners from different sites and production areas is described. In an effort to tackle the cultural and behavioral challenges in an established industry in a region where electrical safety has recently emerged as a serious industrial risk, the Electrical Safety Program developed integrates intensive training and communications to drive change in modus operandi.
Advancing Electrical Safety Programs With The Introduction Of Authorized Persons
Author(s):

- Arunkumar Aravamudhan
- Robert Wagner
- Raymund Torres
- Edward Bolton
- Daryld Ray Crow
Description: Key Components of a Comprehensive Electrical Safety Program

Abstract: There are some unique electrical safety challenges found in the oil and gas pipeline industry that are not normally encountered in the plant environment. One of the more prominent challenges is that oil and gas pipeline facilities and sites are often unmanned and in remote or extreme weather locations. In addition, pipeline maintenance and operation employees often work alone, and with limited supervision. Furthermore, pipelines are often located in shared right of ways with high voltage electrical utilities which can cause unexpected electrical safety hazards. This drives the need for a comprehensive electrical safety program that is developed by a multi-disciplined group with team members from engineering, operations, health and safety, and training, and a program that places a higher degree of electrical safety awareness for unqualified employees and supervisors who operate or work near energized, or potentially energized, non-exposed electrical equipment. This paper will identify the key components of an electrical safety program that are needed when there is a requirement to perform energized electrical work or operate electrical equipment in the pipeline industry.
Equipment Operation Near Powelines
Author(s):

- Jennifer L. Martin
Description: The largest number of fatalities due to contact with energized lines occurs with non-electrical workers that are often unaware of the risk associated with electrical power lines due to inadequate or lack of training. Are employers training employees to maintain proficiency consistent with their assigned tasks? Establishing training requirements for the non-electrical worker is a critical step for the successful reduction of fatal shocks while working around power lines. The training will raise awareness, create a questioning attitude, and provide confidence to employees who are at higher risk of electrocution.

Abstract: Occupational electrocution has been identified as one of the “fatal four" workplace fatalities, most often contact with energized electrical power lines. The question is where did we go wrong? The largest number of fatalities due to contact with energized lines occurs with non-electrical workers that are often unaware of the risk associated with electrical power lines due to inadequate or lack of training. Are employers training employees to maintain proficiency consistent with their assigned tasks? A task based Risk Assessment provides the basis for the level of training, and controls required for safe work performance. When all workers understand the risks, policies and procedures it creates an organic community of knowledge in the workplace.

The implementation of this best practice of required controls will provide an enhanced, inclusive, and conservative approach to working near or around power lines. Our procedure requires that all equipment or any work scope within 20 feet of overhead lines shall require a work planning process identifying the type of training required, proper boundaries to be maintained, and controls necessary for the work to be performed. This process is unique and tailored to each type of equipment or work evolution that has the potential to contact energized lines. Flow charts were created as part of the best practice to enable the planner to walk through the process to identify when additional planning is necessary. This practice defines when a qualified worker or dedicated spotters are necessary, and will drive the employer to provide necessary training. Demonstrating an understanding of proficiency regarding the electrical hazards involved sets the foundation for safe performance in a challenging environment.

Establishing training requirements for the non-electrical worker is a critical step for the successful reduction of fatal shocks while working around power lines. The training will raise awareness, create a questioning attitude, and provide confidence to employees who are at higher risk of electrocution.
Exploration of the Theory of Electric Shock Drowning
Author(s):

- Jesse Alena Kotsch
- Brandon Prussak
- Michael Morse
- James Kohl
Description: This paper explores the theory of Electric Shock Drowning and presents findings from Finite Element Analysis for a swimmer in fresh/saltwater environments. The model further demonstrates that risk of ESD in either environment (as a function of water conductivity) is defined by a "zone of danger".

Abstract: Electric Shock Drowning (ESD) is theorized to occur when a current exceeding the “let-go" current, passing through a body of water, conducts through a swimmer, paralyzing the victim, causing them to drown. The prevailing theory is that the probability of receiving a deadly shock in a freshwater environment (such as a lake) is higher than the probability for a swimmer in a saltwater environment. The conductivity of the swimmer is higher than the surrounding environment in fresh water causing a greater percentage (as a function of water conductivity) of current to shunt through the swimmer. The opposite is true for a swimmer in salt water. The purpose of this research was to simulate current flow through swimmers in both fresh- and salt-water environments and to establish the differential risk for ESD in a fresh versus a salt environment. A Finite Element Analysis was conducted for a swimmer in each environment crossing between a current source and a pathway to ground. Water conductivity was varied from .005 S/m2 (pure water) up to 4.8 S/m2 (salt water) and the current density through a cross sectional area of the human model was measured. The data showed that the ratio of swimmer current density to immediate surrounding current density is greater than 1 in fresh water and less than 1 in saltwater indicating validity to the idea that current shunts through a swimmer in fresh water and around a swimmer in salt water. The model also indicated that because of the reduced conductivity in fresh water, the overall current available is substantially reduced below that found in salt water. The model demonstrated that the risk for ESD in fresh versus salt environments is balanced between the increased current shunted through the swimmer in fresh water and the reduced current available because of the reduced conductivity. The model further demonstrated that risk of ESD in either fresh or salt environments (as a function of water conductivity) is defined by a "zone of danger" that is directly related to the percentage of current shunted through the swimmer and inversely related to the current limiting resistance of the body of water. From these findings, the researchers postulate a “self-saving" method that a swimmer can implement upon first sensation of electric current.
Reframing Our View of “Electrical" Injuries in the Workplace
Author(s):

- Tammy Gammon
- Wei-Jen Lee
- Iragaba Intwari
Description: Electrical work is viewed as a dangerous occupation, but 2015 occupational fatalities show that electrical work is safer than truck driving. BLS statistics are used to reframe perceptions about electrical and electrical worker injuries. 2011-2015 BLS data indicate where safety emphasis is needed to reduce electrical and electrical worker injuries.

Abstract: NFPA 70E, Electrical Safety in the Workplace, addresses electrical safety practices for electrical workers. However, the words “electrical safety in the workplace" might also be used to refer to electrical safety for all workers and general safety for electrical workers. Recent 2011-2015 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data are used to show that, comparatively speaking, electrical work is not an exceptionally dangerous occupation and that electrical injuries are not unique to electrical workers. The BLS injury data reveals 1) contact with electricity is a much higher percentage of fatal occupational injuries than nonfatal occupational injuries, and 2) the number of nonfatal electric shock and electrical arc burn injuries rose in 2015. The BLS data suggests that worker safety programs, in general, need to make an awareness of electrical hazards a priority. The BLS data specific to electricians showed a rising trend in fatalities, but a reduction in nonfatal injuries. Electrical workers are injured not only by electrical hazards but also by violence, transportation accidents, falling, and overexertion. The paper explores the percentages of the different injury types to reinforce the importance of all safety training required for electrical workers.
Service Entrance Disconnect Near Miss
Author(s):

- Joel A. Pettit
- Jose Chapa
Description: Annual thermographic inspection prevented a potentially harmful equipment failure in a manufacturing plant. Thermal analysis being performed on February 1st 2017 found a 3,000 amp main electrical service with temperatures approaching 500 °F. The paper describes the corrective actions and the investigative findings.

Abstract: A case study detailing the prevention of a potentially harmful equipment failure at the service entrance disconnect in a manufacturing plant. Annual thermal analysis being performed on the enclosure and through an infrared (IR) window on February 1st 2017 found a 3,000 amp main electrical service with an enclosure surface temperature of 155° F and disconnect components inside with temperatures approaching 500 °F. The main electrical service disconnect in the enclosure was non-operable. The only upstream equipment from the service entrance is local utility equipment outside the building. The plant was immediately shut down after an on-the-spot risk assessment and replacement parts were searched for while the local utility arrived to disconnect the power from the building. Subsequent investigation of the overheated disconnect switch found that it had not fully closed during the last maintenance performed on it 4 months earlier. As a result of the near miss several maintenance program and prevention actions were taken.
Using Spectrum of the Light for High Speed Arcing Fault Protection
Author(s):

- Long Zhao
- Kun-Long Chen
- Shiuan-Hau Rau
- Wei-Jen Lee
Description: This paper proposes a positive arc flash faults detection and identification technique by using distinct light emitting spectrum of metals. This approach can avoid the influence of the ambient lighting conditions. The sensing speed and reliability of the operation can be improved with this proposed method.

Abstract: Unlike short circuit faults in power systems, arcing faults produce intense light during the events. Light sensing technology has been developed as a part of arch faults detection since 1980's. Currently, optical fiber and point sensors are 2 types of light sensors which have been applied along with simultaneous over-current mechanism for arc flash relays. Due to the characteristics of light sensors, sensitivity and reliability of the relay may be affected by the ambient light. This paper proposed a new approach for arc flash fault identification by using spectrum of the light. Study of electromagnetic radiation of different materials have been in many different areas. The concept of electromagnetic radiation is that different element would emit spectra with unique wavelengths when their atoms are excited. Therefore, element can be identified if emission spectrum is known during the excitation period. In general, Copper and Aluminum are commonly used for conductors and Steel/iron is used for enclosure. During the arc flash events, the conductors and cages will produce the light caused by extremely high temperature. Different elements would emit different spectrum pattern. Therefore, by examining the spectrum of the light, the type of faults can be accurately and quickly identified. In the experiment of this study, copper, aluminum and iron cables will be applied as arch flash conductors. The light spectrum among all materials will be measured and recorded by an optic spectrometer from the arcing light. As the result, the sensing speed and reliability of the operation can be improved by using the proposed light spectrum method. Meanwhile, the proposed approach will be able to provide positive identification for arc flash faults without being affected by the ambient lighting conditions. In the future, this approach can also be used to identify fault types if different materials are used in different phases.
Electrical fatality rate and epidemiology of electrocution in Japan, 2012 - 2014
Author(s):

- Norimitsu Ichikawa
Description: The present study has not been published for any other publication.
Abstract: Recent electrical fatal accidents by the electric shock maintain a plateau in Japan though its trend shows overall a decreasing trend. The electrical fatal accidents are 15 accidents for 2012, 5 accidents for 2013, 15 accidents for 2014. The Japan electrical fatalities will exceed 8,000 fatalities until 2040. Thus, a consideration of some further preventive measures is necessary for us to save valuable lives of workers (workforces). However, the complete prevention of fatal accidents by the electric shock is not easy. The reasons are that workers for all industries are 60 million and those for the construction and the manufacturing industries are 15 million. The percentage of the electrical fatal accidents for the construction and the electrical construction industry is approximately 60% in all industries. The similar electrical fatal accidents occur every year. Thus, the number of workers is so many and the complete preventive measures is not easy. New approach of the preventive measures on the electrical fatal accidents is required because of such conditions. In this paper, the detailed analysis of recent electrical fatal accidents is performed by case studies from 2012 to 2014. We want to save the valuable life of workers from the electrical fatal accidents by carrying out this study.
Calculating the Arc Flash Incident Energy in Single-Phase Systems Using a Three-Phase Model
Author(s):

- Afshin Majd
- Robert Luo
- Marvin Devadass
Description: This paper provides a step-by-step method to convert faults in single-phase systems to an equivalent fault in a three-phase system. The objective is to take advantage of the calculation methods in three-phase systems to find the short circuit currents in single-phase systems and use them in IEEE 1584 arc flash equations. Knowing that 1584 only covers three-phase faults, this paper proposes a method to include single-phase systems and calculate arc flash outputs in a similar fashion.

Abstract: IEEE 1584 equations do not cover single phase faults based on the assumption that most of them escalate to a three-phase fault for which this standard applies. If IEEE 1584 equations were used for a single-phase fault, the results would be conservative based on the standard. Most of the short circuit, and fault calculation reference material cover three phase systems. Nonetheless, there are many commercial, and industrial systems, which are single phase. That is, they either feed from a single-phase source, or branch off a 3-phase system. These systems can, too, experience faults, and arc flash, where there aren't good references to cover them. Fault current calculations in single phase systems can be more challenging than a three-phase system due to lack of existing work. There are several reasons why a single-phase system is different from three-phase one. Single-phase systems do not possess the symmetry that three-phase systems do, therefore, their calculations are different from those of three-phase systems. Also, we are not able to use the positive, negative, and zero sequence networks in most applications. Usually, single-phase lines branch off a three-phase circuit, and the calculations should replace an equivalent model for the part feeding only phase A, B, or C. This concept brings in another discussion on the neutral conductor, and how it should be considered once a ABC system converts to an AN/BN/CN or AB/AC or BC system. In a balanced three-phase system, there is no residual current as three phase currents add up to 0. When one phase gets separated, there is a need for a return path, which is the neutral.

In this paper, we present an approach to simulate faults in single-phase systems through a three-phase model. The method is very useful since once the equivalent 3-phase model is created both fault, and arc flash calculations can be performed like any other three-phase system. The scope, limitations, and details of the method will be presented with some examples.
Development of a sensor to better inform thermal ratings of arc flash PPE
Author(s):

- Joe Potvin
- Tom Short
Description: This work discusses the development and testing of a sensor that measures arc flash incident energy contributions from radiation and convection, separately. Application of this approach will inform how PPE performs when tested using arc sources that are predominantly radiation-based, convection-based, or a combination.

Abstract: Incident energy ratings of arc flash personal protective equipment (PPE) are often based on the test methodology described in ASTM F1959/F1959M. The generated arc primarily subjects test specimens to incident energy due to radiation. However, an actual arc flash may include an ejected arc where there is a high degree of convective heat transfer, and is not adequately represented in the ASTM tests. A sensor has been developed, and tested, that measures the incident energy due to convection, and radiation, separately. Staged testing was performed to compare the results of the new sensor with traditional slug calorimeter instrumentation. The new sensor provided data comparable with the traditional sensor, while providing more information about the source of the incident energy. Application of the new sensor will better inform which types of PPE are better suited for protection against incident energy transferred via radiation, and that transferred convectively, such as the arc-in-a-box scenario.
Improving Safety Culture Among Non-Electrical Workers
Author(s):

- Nehad El-Sherif
- Juan R. Lahera
- Susan C. Kidd
Description: This paper attempts to correct the electrical safety disparity between electrical and non-electrical power utility workers. The goal is to elevate non-electrical-worker awareness of electrical hazards through the careful analysis of workplace practices to identify and rectify unsafe aspects thereof.

Abstract: Power Utilities have long been recognized as “best-in-class" in their safety practices. The high voltages and currents that power utility workers have to deal with make it very important to have a strong safety program in place. Each utility has a safety manual that describes safe work procedures in detail. However, a safety manual is only as good as its endorsement by employees. Therefore, in the implementing of a safety-oriented culture it is very important to engage employees at all levels.

Unfortunately, thus far, the attention has been given in greatest part to electrical workers; those who install, alter, or maintain electrical equipment on a daily basis. This disparity of attention has left workers of non-electrical background neglected and under-informed. This paper attempts to correct the disparity by elevating non-electrical-worker awareness of electrical hazards through the careful analysis of workplace practices to identify and rectify unsafe aspects thereof.
Complete Electrical Risk Assessment Method
Author(s):

- Lloyd B. Gordon
Description: This paper presents a method of risk assessment for electrical work considering potential exposure to all forms of electricity, in all electrical work environments, for all industries. This risk assessment approach will include traditional AC power, DC, impulse, and radiofrequency sources

Abstract: In order to address the hazards, risks, and controls of electrical work in all fields, recent efforts in classifying all electrical shock hazards and all arc flash hazards are now presented in an approach to perform risk assessments and develop controls for all forms of electricity in all work environments. This presentation considers recent efforts in NFPA 70E, Department of Energy, and Department of Defense to address electrical hazards beyond power frequencies (50/60 Hz) in electrical systems and equipment including battery banks, solar and wind power systems, DC transmission lines, lasers, accelerators, capacitor banks, electroplating systems, induction and dielectric heating systems, etc. Industries utilizing these non traditional electrical hazards include chemical, power generation and transmission, aluminum and steel, military, and research. Recent work in the classification of all shock hazards and all arc flash hazards will be used to take the thresholds for various types of injuries and present a method of performing risk assessments based on energy type, work task, exposure, equipment configuration and condition, environmental considerations, and worker knowledge, experience, training and condition. This approach to risk assessment for electrical work with all electrical hazards in all work environments will then be used for the controls to prevent injury, including PPE, training, oversight, and co-worker responsibilities.