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Santa Clara Valley Chapter


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Calendar Year 2010 Presentations


Wednesday, January 20, 2010, 7:30 pm
Location: Room M-114, Stanford University Medical School
Optional dinner, location: Nexus Cafeteria in the Clark Center, 6:15 pm(no host, no reservations)

SMRT (Single-Molecule, Real-Time) Biology

Jonas Korlach, PhD
Pacific Biosciences

Abstract:
Organisms can be viewed as dynamic, highly modular, and adaptive systems able to reconfigure themselves as conditions demand. The scientific community is increasingly recognizing that multiple data sources (e.g., DNA, RNA, protein and metabolite levels, etc.) and sophisticated computational approaches that integrate diverse data are required to uncover the hierarchy of molecular, cellular, and tissue-based networks defining these complex physiological transitions, sometimes leading to disease.

While a significant technological revolution in biology has led to this realization, limitations in the available technologies have hampered the ability to embrace this scale of complexity. In order to fully realize the promise of personalized medicine, scientists require a means to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the fundamental building blocks of biological systems.

SMRT™ (Single Molecule Real Time) Biology is the application of Pacific Biosciences’ transformative detection platform enabling the real-time monitoring of biological processes at single-molecule resolution. The first commercial application for this transformative platform is SMRT DNA sequencing (available in 2010). Pacific Biosciences has begun expanding internal research programs and developing collaborations for additional ‘SMRT Biology’ applications and bioinformatics tools that will allow scientists to acquire new, fundamental knowledge about the molecular dynamics of life. These include simpler and more direct solutions for RNA sequencing, methylation sequencing, and even the largely uncharted real-time observation of protein translation.

Jonas Korlach, PhD, will discuss this research at the January 20 meeting of the Santa Clara Valley Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society. He will first highlight the importance of a comprehensive determination of DNA, RNA and protein sequences and abundances for the understanding of life processes. He will then describe the principles of the underlying SMRT technology in the context of an historical account of its development which is an example of both the power of multidisciplinary scientific endeavors, and the potential of transferring an academic research project into an industrial organization environment.

The current performance of the SMRT DNA sequencing system will be presented with an emphasis on the enablement of entirely new possibilities of inquiries into biological systems, followed by an outlook of projected performance potentials and implications for the changes it will bring with regard to our perception on medicine.


Biography
Jonas Korlach received a Diplom (Masters) degree in biology from Humboldt University (Germany) in 1996, and a PhD in biochemistry, molecular and cell biology from Cornell University in 2003 where he initiated the technology development on SMRT DNA sequencing as a collaboration between the labs of Watt Webb and Harold Craighead. After a short postdoc at the same institution and as a technical consultant to Pacific Biosciences, continuing with this research, he joined Pacific Biosciences as employee #3 after it received the first round of venture capital funding to commercialize the method. He currently holds the title of Principal Scientist at the company, supporting commercial development of the SMRT DNA sequencing system, and performing research aimed at enabling new applications within the ‘SMRT Biology’ realm.



Wednesday, February 17, 2010, 7:30 pm
Location: Room M-114, Stanford University Medical School
Optional dinner: Nexus Cafeteria in the Clark Center, 6:15 pm (no host, no reservations)

TITLE: Optical Coherence Tomography: From Bench to Bedside

Tony Ko, PhD
Optovue, Inc.

Abstract:
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is the optical analogue of ultrasound that was invented about 20 years ago at MIT. OCT provides the ability to acquire cross-sectional images from biological tissue with much better resolution than ultrasound. It was recognized that OCT can have an impact in the field of ophthalmology where high-resolution cross-sectional images of retina was not available and would be of clinical value. However, it took about 10 years for the market to evolve and the technology to mature before OCT gained acceptance in the field of ophthalmology. Recent scientific advances has dramatically improved the technical performance of OCT and further improved its clinical utility and impact. Today, OCT has become a clinical standard in ophthalmology and an important diagnostic tool for managing retinal diseases. There are now nine companies developing OCT instruments for ophthalmology and many others are exploring applications of OCT technology in clinical fields such as cardiology, dermatology, and gastroenterology.

Tony Ko, PhD, will discuss the development of OCT from the university research labs to everyday clinical use in ophthalmology at the February 17 meeting of the Santa Clara Valley Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society. The successful transfer of OCT into ophthalmology is an interesting case study in the many factors that contribute to the acceptance of a new technology into medicine.

Biography
Tony Ko received Bachelor of Science degrees in Electrical Engineering & Computer Science (EECS) and Bioengineering from the University of California at Berkeley, a Masters of Science in EECS from MIT, and a PhD in Medical Engineering and Medical Physics from the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology.

Tony performed his PhD research in the MIT laboratory of Prof. James Fujimoto, one of the original inventors of Optical Coherence Tomography. He is currently the Manager of Advanced Development at Optovue, Inc., an ophthalmic medical device company.


Wednesday, March 17, 2010, 7:30 pm
Location: Room M-114, Stanford University Medical School
Optional dinner, location: Nexus Cafeteria in the Clark Center, 6:15 pm(no host, no reservations)

Fixed gantry tomosynthesis system for radiation therapy image guidance based on a multiple source x-ray tube with carbon nanotube cathodes

Ali Bani-Hashemi, PhD
Siemens Oncology Group

Abstract:
We present an imaging system that employs a compact multiple source x-ray tube to produce a tomosynthesis image from a set of projections obtained at a single tube position. The electron sources within the tube are realized using cold cathode carbon nanotube technology. The primary intended application is tomosynthesis-based 3D image guidance during external beam radiation therapy.

The tube, which is attached to the gantry of a medical linear accelerator (linac) immediately below the multileaf collimator, operates within the voltage range of 80–160 kVp and contains a total of 52 sources that are arranged in a rectilinear array. This configuration allows for the acquisition of tomographic projections from multiple angles without any need to rotate the linac gantry. The x-ray images are captured by the same amorphous silicon flat panel detector employed for portal imaging on contemporary linacs. The field-of-view (FOV) of the system corresponds to that part of the volume that is sampled by rays from all sources. The present tube and detector configuration provides an 8 cm×8 cm FOV in the plane of the linac isocenter when the 40.96 cm×40.96 cm imaging detector is placed 40 cm from the isocenter.

Since this tomosynthesis application utilizes the extremities of the detector to record image detail relating to structures near the isocenter, simultaneous treatment and imaging is possible for most clinical cases, where the treated target is a small region close to the linac isocenter.

Biography
Ali Bani-Hashemi currently heads the Siemens Oncology Innovation team in Concord, CA. Before joining the oncology group, he was an R&D manager (for 18 years) at Siemens Corporate Research in Princeton, NJ. He holds a doctoral degree from the University of Michigan in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.



Wednesday, April 21, 2010, 7:30 pm
Location: Room M-114, Stanford University Medical School
Optional dinner: Nexus Cafeteria in the Clark Center, 6:15 pm (no host, no reservations)


MEMS based ultrasonic transducers in medical imaging and therapy

B. (Pierre) T. Khuri-Yakub
Stanford University

Abstract:
Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) have been developed in the past decade as alternative transducers for generating and detecting ultrasound. Capacitor transducers have been known for over 100 years; however, the advent of silicon micromachining has enabled the realization of the full potential of these transducers. Silicon micromachining allows the manufacture of capacitors with very thin gaps that can withstand electric fields of the order of 109 V/m. These fields enable performance that makes CMUTs competitive and superior to piezoelectric transducers.

In immersion applications, CMUTs are possible with fractional bandwidth of over 100 %, an electromechanical coupling coefficient close to unity; are made in the form of single element or one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) arrays of tens of thousand of elements, as well as annular arrays. They have been operated in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 50 MHz, and included in systems with a dynamic range of the order of 150 dB/V/Hz. Custom electronics have been developed and integrated with arrays of transducers to form compact catheter based medical ultrasound imaging systems.

This presentation will first review the operation of CMUTs, the technology used to make them, transmit/receive RF electronics, and several applications in medical imaging and therapy.

Biography
Butrus (Pierre) T. Khuri-Yakub is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University. He received the BS degree from the American University of Beirut, the MS degree from Dartmouth College, and the Ph.D. degree from Stanford University, all in electrical engineering. His current research interests include medical ultrasound imaging and therapy, chemical/biological sensors, micromachined ultrasonic transducers, and ultrasonic fluid ejectors. He has authored over 500 publications and has been principal inventor or co-inventor of 78 US and international issued patents. He was awarded the Medal of the City of Bordeaux in 1983 for his contributions to Nondestructive Evaluation, the Distinguished Advisor Award of the School of Engineering at Stanford University in 1987, the Distinguished Lecturer Award of the IEEE UFFC society in 1999, a Stanford University Outstanding Inventor Award in 2004, and a Distinguished Alumnus Award of the School of Engineering of the American University of Beirut in 2005.


Wednesday, May 19, 2010, 7:30 pm
Location: Room M-114, Stanford University Medical School
Optional dinner: Nexus Cafeteria in the Clark Center, 6:15 pm (no host, no reservations)


Applying Therapeutic Device Innovation To Clinical Medicine: The Evalve Story

Dr. Fred St. Goar
El Camino Hospital

Abstract:
Fred St.Goar is an interventional cardiologist at El Camino Hospital. He did his internal medicine and cardiology training at Stanford in the eighties during the hayday of cardiology medical device development where he took his lead from the plethora of successful enterpreneurs who were actively involved with the Stanford program including Tom Fogarty, John Simpson, Paul Yock and Rich Popp to name a few. Since his training he has been actively involved in the early development of a number of projects that went on to become successful companies including Heartport, Cardiovascular Imaging Systems and Cryovascular Systems. In 1999 he cofounded with the Foundry, a then fledging medical device incubator. Evalve, a company that prior to recently being acquired by Abbott was recognized as one of the leaders in area of percutaneous mitral valve intervention. His talk will take you through the Evalve story from the perspective of a physician innovator.





Wednesday, June 16, 2010, 7:30 pm
Location: Room M-114, Stanford University Medical School
Optional dinner: Nexus Cafeteria in the Clark Center, 6:15 pm (no host, no reservations)


Optoelectronic Retinal Prosthesis for Restoration of Sight to the Blind.

Dr. Daniel Palanker
Department of Ophthalmology and
Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory
Stanford University

ABSTRACT:
Retinal degeneration leads to blindness due to loss of photoreceptors, while the inner retinal neurons are often preserved to large extent. Visual information can be reintroduced into the visual system by electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal circuitry using implanted microelectrode array. In our prosthetic system the processed images of the visual scene captured by the camera are projected from the micro LCD display mounted in the video goggles onto a subretinally implanted microphotodiode array. Each photovoltaic pixel in the array converts the received pulsed near-infrared light (900 nm) into biphasic pulses of electric current that directly stimulate retinal neurons. In this approach thousands of pixels in the implant can be activated simultaneously and independently, and a natural link between the eye movements and image perception is preserved. 3-dimensional implant structure facilitates close integration of neurons with stimulating electrodes, and modular design of the implant allows for expansion of the stimulated field. I will describe the current status of the system development and testing, and the resolution limits attainable with such technology.



http://www.stanford.edu/~palanker/lab/retinalpros.html


Biography:
Daniel Palanker is an Associate Professor in the Department of Ophthalmology and in Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory at Stanford University. He studies interactions of electric field and light with biological cells and tissues, and develops their diagnostic, therapeutic and prosthetic applications. Two of his inventions - Pattern Scanning Laser Photocoagulator (PASCAL) and Pulsed Electron Avalanche Knife (PEAK) are in clinical use worldwide, and the Femtosecond Laser System for Cataract Surgery is currently in a clinical trial. His research in therapeutic applications includes multiphoton interactions, tissue response to transient hyperthermia, plasma-mediated discharges, and electronic control of vasculature. In the field of prosthetics he works on development of a high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis for restoring sight to patients blinded by retinal degeneration.


Wednesday, September 15, 2010, 7:30 pm
Location: Room M-114, Stanford University Medical School
Optional dinner: NOTE THIS CHANGE: Stanford Hospital Cafeteria, 6:15 pm (no host, no reservations)


The Art of Catheter-Based Imaging

Kendall R. Waters, PhD
Manager of IP and Technology Development
Silicon Valley Medical Instruments Inc.

Abstract:
Catheters play a key role in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the specialty of interventional cardiology, which is dedicated to catheter-based treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The tools of an interventional cardiologist include a variety of developed and emerging imaging technologies to guide therapy. This talk will focus not only on the science and engineering but also the on art of intracoronary imaging catheters. Intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography catheter systems will serve as examples.

Biography:
Dr. Kendall Waters is Manager of IP and Technology Development at the start-up Silicon Valley Medical Instruments, Inc. and an IEEE Senior Member. He is an expert in ultrasound, with particular experience in the interaction of ultrasound and tissue for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. He has previously worked at the Advanced Technology Laboratory of Volcano Corp, the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in France. Dr. Waters received his Ph.D. from Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri.


Wednesday, October 20, 2010, 7:30 pm
Location: Room M-114, Stanford University Medical School
Optional dinner: NOTE THIS CHANGE: Stanford Hospital Cafeteria, 6:15 pm (no host, no reservations)


INFocus Coherent Image Formation Technology

Wilko Wilkening, PhD
Staff Systems Engineer
Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.

Abstract:
INFocus is a real-time Coherent Image Formation technology that provides dynamic transmit focusing at every pixel.

All conventional digital receive beamformers provide dynamic receive focusing through delay profiles that vary dynamically tracking the depth from which the echo is received. But the transmit focusing has been static, and it has been limited to a single or a couple of discrete focal depths for decades. With the introduction of INFocus, dynamic receive focusing is complemented by dynamic transmit focusing which completes the round-trip dynamic focusing throughout the image. This improves detail resolution, contrast resolution, SNR and frame/volume rate.

INFocus is similar to synthetic aperture imaging in that information from different parts of the transmit aperture are contributed by separate pulse-echo events. This set of information is combined in a phase-sensitive, i.e., coherent manner, retrospectively after the receive beamformation. There are however three differences between INFocus and conventional synthetic aperture. First the component acquisitions use full transmit and receive apertures as opposed to single element or small apertures. Secondly the data is combined in a depth dependent manner that provides transmit focus at all depths. And lastly a progressive acquisition scheme is used so that frame rate is preserved and even improved, not reduced.

This capability is enabled on the SC2000 by a digital receive beamformer that has massive parallel beamformation capability and a Coherent Imageformer that has proprietary architecture and super processing bandwidth.

Biography:
Dr.-Ing. Wilko G. Wilkening (IEEE member since ’97) was born in Bonn, Germany in 1970. He received his Master’s degree (Diplom-Ingenieur) in 1995 and his PhD (Doktor-Ingenieur) in 2003 in Electrical Engineering from the Ruhr-Universität Bochum, in Bochum, Germany.

Dr. Wilko Wilkening is currently a staff systems engineer at Siemens Medical Solution USA, Inc., Mountain View, CA where he contributes to the development of real-time 3D ultrasound systems for medical imaging.

During a yearlong internship in 1996 in the Advanced Development Department of Siemens Medical Systems, Inc., Ultrasound Group, Issaquah WA, USA, he participated in the early developments of 3D and contrast ultrasound. While working towards his PhD under the supervision of Prof. Helmut Ermert, he further pursued research on ultrasound contrast imaging. Other research interests include beam forming and flow imaging. From 2004 to 2008, he worked for Krohne Messtechnik GmbH & Co. KG performing research on ultrasonic flowmeters. He received the “Young Investigator Award” at the Fifth Heart Centre European Symposium on Ultrasound Contrast Imaging in 2000, and in 2003 he was awarded the “Gebrüder Eickhoff-Preis” for his PhD thesis.


Wednesday, November 17, 2010, 7:30 pm
Location: Room M-114, Stanford University Medical School
Optional dinner: NOTE THIS CHANGE: Stanford Hospital Cafeteria, 6:15 pm (no host, no reservations)


MEMS Technology for Medical Applications

Alissa M. Fitzgerald,Ph.D.
Founder and Managing Member
A.M. Fitzgerald & Associates, LLC

Abstract:


MEMS technology offers great potential to medical applications, since it enables manufacturing of sophisticated components and sensors at biologically-relevant size scales (microns to millimeters) and uses bio-compatible materials (noble metals, polymers, glass). This presentation will provide an overview of the wide range of MEMS devices being developed for medical applications, in markets such as biotech and drug discovery, point of care, external medical devices and implants. Many MEMS devices are already in use, some are in FDA trials and others will be starting trials soon.

Biography:



Dr. Fitzgerald has over 15 years of hands-on engineering experience in MEMS design, fabrication and product development. She has developed over a dozen distinct MEMS devices, such as piezoresistive cantilevers, ultrasound transducers, and infrared imagers. She advises clients on the entire technology development cycle, from business and IP strategy, to initial design and prototyping, all the way through to foundry transfer. She is a recognized expert on reliability of brittle materials and is active in the development of a proprietary MEMS fracture prediction tool.

She has previously been employed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Sigpro, and Sensant Corporation (acquired by Siemens). Dr. Fitzgerald received her bachelor and master degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her doctorate from Stanford University, all in the discipline of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Dr. Fitzgerald has numerous journal publications, holds two patents, and is a frequent lecturer at UC Berkeley, Stanford University and local professional group meetings. Dr. Fitzgerald serves on the Governing Council of the MEMS Industry Group.

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