2014 Events

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February 11, 2014: "Optics for wearable see through displays." by Bernard Kress, Proto-Optics group in the Google Glass Team

Abstract

Head-Up Displays (HUD), Helmet- or Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) as well as gun sights have been extensively investigated during the past decades for military applications by various defense contractors. While the first see through HMD optical combiners have been based on conventional reflective/refractive optics, the first and most efficient HUD combiner technologies have been based on holographic optics. We will review the various HMD optical architectures available today on the market (in both defense and consumer electronics markets), discuss their respective requirements, and list their advantages and problems.

Biography

For over 20 years, Bernard has made significant scientific contributions as researcher, professor, consultant, advisor, instructor, and author, making major contributions to digital micro-optical systems for consumer electronics, generating IP, and teaching and transferring technological solutions to industry. Many of the world's largest producers of optics and photonics products have consulted with him on a wide range of optics and photonics technologies including; laser materials processing, optical security, optical telecom/datacom, optical data storage, optical computing, optical motion sensors, pico- projectors, light emitting diode displays, optical gesture sensing, three dimensional remote sensing, digital imaging processing, and biotechnology sensors. Bernard has generated 28 patents of which nine have been granted in the United States, nine have been granted in Europe, two are awaiting filing numbers, and eight are pending. He has published four books, a book chapter, 88 refereed publications and proceedings, and numerous technical publications. He has also been Involved in several European Research Projects in Micro-Optics including the Eureka Flat Optical Technology and Applications (FOTA) Project and the Network for Excellence in Micro-Optics (NEMO) Project.


March 4, 2014: "Extreme Ultraviolet Photolithography" by Mark Phillips, EUV lithography group at INTEL

Abstract

Traditional Optical Lithography is reaching the limits of its resolution, and continuing improvements in integrated circuit density are becoming progressively harder. For the past decade, the semiconductor industry has been working on moving to extreme ultraviolet / soft x-ray wavelengths for exposing photomasks, which should allow significant future reductions in feature size. The author will discuss the technical challenges faced by the industry in making this transition, and the current state of the art, along with predictions for how the transition will take place. Getting sufficient power from the EUV sources has been perhaps the main limiting challenge, and he will address some of the problems in this area as well.

Biography

Mark Phillips is a Senior Principal Engineer in Intel's Logic Technology Development group in Hillsboro, Oregon. After completing a PhD in Physics from the California Institute of Technology, he joined Intel 20 years ago to work on development of the 0.35 micron process node. For the last 10 years, he has been the primary technical interface to Intel's exposure tool suppliers, and has worked on the introduction of every new generation of exposure tool into technology development and manufacturing. In the last few years, Mark has also been responsible for defining the roadmap for the factory automation systems that support Intel's lithography tools, and the introduction of new metrology techniques to support lithography.


April 1, 2014: "Adaptive Optics from Sky to Eye: Applications of Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, Ophthalmology, Communications and Biometrics" by Dr. Malcolm Northcott

Abstract

Adaptive optics, most notably, has been used to correct for atmospheric distortions to improve the performance of terrestrial astronomic telescopes.  With the increased performance, and reduction in size of precision motion devices, adaptive optics now may be found in a variety of modern applications - from medical systems to high-speed data communications.  The author will present the basics of adaptive optics and optical systems and then explore the application of this technology in astronomy, ophthalmology, communications and biometrics. 

Biography

Malcolm Northcott, is founder of AOptix and currently CTO of Identity Solutions Division. A pioneer in the development of hardware and software for Adaptive Optics systems with application to atmospheric correction for astronomy, Malcolm has over 20 years of experience in adaptive optics based product development, adaptive optics for astronomy, software development and optical system modeling. Dr. Northcott played a key role in the development of curvature-sensing AO technology and participated in the construction of the world's first curvature-sensing AO system for the Canada-France- Hawaii telescope in Hawaii, and later a commissioning instrument for the Gemini 8m telescope. Malcolm and Buzz Graves founded AOptix in 2000 to commercialize Adaptive optics technology as applied to laser communications. At AOptix we have demonstrated commercial laser communications between fixed ground points, as well as defense targeted long distance, high speed communications between moving aircraft. Malcolm is currently working on adaptive optics based biometric iris imaging in the Identity Solutions division of AOptix.


Education:

Ph.D., Optics, Imperial College, London, England (1988) B.A., Physics, Christ's College, Cambridge, England. (1984)


June 10, 2014: "The Opto-Electronic Physics Which Broke the Efficiency Record in Solar Cells" by Prof. Eli Yablonovitch - University of California, Berkeley

Abstract

Solar cell science and technology is changing. New efficiency records have been set. Alta Devices has reached 28.8% efficiency in a thin film single-junction cell at 1-sun, and 30.8% efficiency in a thin-film dual junction cell at 1-sun. Counter-intuitively, efficient external fluorescence is a necessity for approaching the ultimate limits. A great Solar Cell also needs to be a great Light Emitting Diode. Why would a solar cell, intended to absorb light, benefit from emitting light? Although it is tempting to equate light emission with loss, paradoxically, light emission actually improves the open-circuit voltage, and the efficiency. The single-crystal thin film technology that achieved these high efficiencies, is created by epitaxial liftoff, and can be produced at cost well below the other less efficient thin film solar technologies. The path is now open to a 30% efficient photovoltaic technology that can be produced at low cost.

Biography

Eli Yablonovitch is Director of the NSF Center for Energy Efficient Electronics Science (E3S), a multi-University Center based at Berkeley. After a career in industry and in Universities, he is now Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences at UC Berkeley, where he holds the James & Katherine Lau Chair in Engineering. He contributed the 4n2 light-trapping factor to solar cells, which is used commercially in most solar panels world-wide. He introduced the benefit of strained quantum well lasers, an idea which is employed widely in most semiconductor lasers. He is regarded as a Father of the Photonic BandGap concept, and he coined the term "Photonic Crystal". Suggested Reading: "Intense Internal and External Fluorescence as Solar Cells Approach the Shockley-Queisser Efficiency Limit", O. D. Miller, Eli Yablonovitch, and S. R. Kurtz, IEEE J. Photovoltaics, vol. 2, pp. 303-311 (2012). "The Opto-Electronics of Solar Cells", E. Yablonovitch and O. D. Miller, IEEE Photonics Society Newsletter, vol. 27, No. 1, p. 4, (February 2013). Prof. Yablonovitch is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America, the IEEE, and the American Physical Society. He was elected a Member of the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and as Foreign Member of the Royal Society of London. He has been awarded the Adolf Lomb Medal, the W. Streifer Scientific Achievement Award, the R.W. Wood Prize, the Julius Springer Prize, the IET Mountbatten Medal (UK), the IEEE Photonics Award, the Harvey Prize (Israel), and the Rank Prize (UK). He also has an honorary Ph.D. from the Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm Sweden, and from the Hong Kong Univ. of Sci. & Technology.


July 29, 2014: "Nanoscale Optofluidic Devices" by Prof. Holger Schmidt, Department of Electrical Engineering, UCSC

Abstract

Integrated photonic devices have traditionally been designed for data communications using exclusively solid-state materials. However, a vast area of potential applications, in particular in the life sciences, involve interactions of light with liquids and gases. Recently, a number of optofluidic approaches have been considered that are aimed at integrating such non-solid media with chip-scale photonic structures. We have developed a versatile, planar photonic platform based on hollow-core optical waveguides. I will describe the physical foundations and optical characteristics of this platform and a broad range of devices and capabilities that are made possible by this approach. In particular, I will discuss the incorporation of nanoscale features for enhanced chip-scale particle detection, manipulation and trapping. I will outline a path to a fluidically and optically integrated "optofluidic" platform that enables direct detection of single nucleic acids and proteins for a new generation of photonics-based molecular diagnostic instruments.

Biography

Holger Schmidt received his PhD degree in electrical and computer engineering from the University of California, Santa Barbara. After serving as a Postdoctoral Fellow at M.I.T., he joined the University of California, Santa Cruz in 2001 where he is Narinder Kapany Professor of electrical engineering and Director of the W.M. Keck Center for Nanoscale Optofluidics. His research interests cover a broad range in photonics and integrated optics, including optofluidic devices, atom photonics, nano-magneto-optics, nonlinear optics, and ultrafast optics. He has over 200 publications and co-edited the CRC Handbook of Optofluidics. He is an OSA Fellow and the recipient of an NSF Career Award and a Keck Futures Nanotechnology Award.

September 2, 2014: "The James Webb Space Telescope: Science Potential and Project Status" by Dr. Thomas Greene -- NASA Ames Research Center

Abstract

The unprecedented sensitivity and resolution of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will significantly advance a broad variety of astrophysics soon after it is launched in 2018. Its large (6.5-m diameter) primary mirror and infrared instruments will allow it to see some of the very first luminous objects that formed in the Universe after the Big Bang. Other major science themes of JWST encompass studying the assembly of galaxies, the birth of stars and planetary systems, and planetary systems and the origins of life. JWST will be the premier astrophysics space observatory for NASA and ESA over its 5 - 10 year mission lifetime, supplanting the Hubble Space Telescope.

JWST employs many unique technologies, and the mission has been in development for over 10 years. Its deployable segmented primary mirror, numerous large format infrared detectors, Be optics, microshutter arrays, deployable sunshade, and on-orbit wavefront sensing and control are all unique technologies for NASA. Many major hardware components - all large optics and all science instruments - have been completed, and integration of major components has begun. In this talk I will illustrate the mission's science potential and highlight the status of this development effort.

Biography

Tom Greene is an astrophysicist at Ames Research Center where he has been working on NASA astrophysics observatories and conducting observations of young stars and extrasolar planets for the past 15 years. He received his PhD in Astronomy from the University of Arizona in 1991 and then came to Ames as a National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellow. Dr. Greene then joined the research faculty of the University of Hawaii and the staff of NASA's Infrared telescope facility. Before rejoining Ames, he worked on developing JWST and Spitzer Space Telescope science instruments at the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto. Dr. Greene has authored or co-authored over 100 scientific papers, including 60 peer reviewed ones. He is on the science teams of 2 JWST instruments and is working on future NASA observatories as well.

October 4, 2014: "The Energy Frontier of Particle Physics Research - Experimentation at the Large Hadron Collider" by Dr. Alexander A. Grillo, University of California, Santa Cruz

Abstract

Particle physics research investigates the interactions of elementary particles, the building blocks of our universe. This work connects the quantum world of the very small with the cosmological world of the enormous. Scattering particles at very high energies is one avenue for such investigations that has proven to be very successful. A new machine, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in Geneva, Switzerland is operating at a new energy frontier and has already afforded one major discovery with hopefully more to follow. I will briefly explain the background of this work and try to convey the importance of these discoveries but then focus the bulk of the talk on the technologies necessary to carry out this experimentation. The LHC along with its associated particle detectors is the largest and most complex set of experiments ever built. I'll talk about the two large detectors - the ATLAS and the CMS, how they were built, how they work, and how vast numbers of "uninteresting events" can be automatically filtered out before analysis even begins. Finally, I'll spend some time talking about the future plans for the LHC, and the upgrades planned over the next 10+ years.

For an fascinating look at CERN near Geneva and the Large Hadron Collider machine, especially ATLAS, check out the movie "ParticleFEVER" directed by Mark Levinson, before the Oct 7th talk. Photonics technology is used in ATLAS.


Visit the movie's Facebook page to see selections from the movie that tours the massive CERN underground facility.

Biography

Alexander A. Grillo received his B.S. from Stanford University in 1971, an M.S. from S.U.N.Y at Stony Brook in 1972, and his Ph.D. from the University of California Santa Cruz in 1980. His Ph.D. dissertation was on the study of high-energy photon-proton scattering at the Fermi National Accelerator Lab. He worked in the electronics industry for twelve years at Intel Magnetics, Intel and a startup company Magnesys, where his work focused on the development of a novel technology for computer memory and on the development of statistical simulation techniques for integrated circuit fabrication processes. He also worked for a short time as part of the Controls Group at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center before returning to UCSC.  He joined the Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) in 1992 to work on the development of silicon micro-strip detectors for particle physics experiments and especially radiation-hardened integrated circuits for readout of such detectors. He now holds the position of Senior Research Physicist and Adjunct Professor. He is currently involved with the ATLAS and the Heavy Photon Search experiments. For the international ATLAS project at the CERN Laboratory's Large Hadron Collider, he served as Electronics Coordinator for the Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) sub-system during the design and construction phases.  He now serves as manager of U.S. maintenance and operations of the Pixel and SCT sub-systems and as Electronics Coordinator for the upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Tracker. Dr. Grillo also currently serves as the president of the Upsilon Chapter at UCSC of the Phi Beta Kappa Honor Society.

November 4, 2014: "Four-Fold Resolution Increase in Scan-Free Single-Fiber Endoscopic Imaging" by Prof. Joseph M. Kahn, Stanford University

Abstract

Image transmission through multi-mode fibers (MMFs) has long been of fundamental interest and is now being pursued vigorously for applications such as endoscopic in vivo imaging. An endoscope using one MMF would be potentially much more compact than endoscopes employing a bundle of fibers or one fiber with a scanning head. We experimentally demonstrate endoscopic imaging through a MMF in which the number of resolvable image features approaches four times the number of spatial modes per polarization propagating in the fiber. In our method, a sequence of random field patterns is input to the fiber, generating a sequence of random intensity patterns at the output, which are used to sample an object. Reflected power values are returned through the fiber and linear optimization is used to reconstruct an image. The factor-of-four resolution enhancement is due to mixing of modes by the squaring inherent in field-to-intensity conversion. The incoherent point-spread function (PSF) at the center of the fiber output plane is an Airy disk equivalent to the coherent PSF of a conventional diffraction-limited imaging system having a numerical aperture twice that of the fiber. All previous methods for imaging through MMF can only resolve a number of features equal to the number of modes. Most of these methods use localized intensity patterns for sampling the object and use local image reconstruction.

* Joint work with Ruo Yu Gu and Reza Nasiri Mahalati.

Biography

Joseph M. Kahn received the A.B., M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Physics from U.C. Berkeley in 1981, 1983 and 1986, respectively. From 1987-1990, he was at AT&T Bell Laboratories, Crawford Hill Laboratory, in Holmdel, NJ. He demonstrated multi-Gbit/s coherent optical fiber transmission systems, setting world records for receiver sensitivity. From 1990-2003, he was on the faculty of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences at U.C. Berkeley, performing research on optical and wireless communications. Since 2003, he has been a Professor of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, where he heads the Optical Communications Group. His current research interests include: fiber-based imaging, spatial multiplexing, rate-adaptive and spectrally efficient modulation and coding methods, coherent detection and associated digital signal processing algorithms, digital compensation of fiber nonlinearity, and free-space systems. Professor Kahn received the National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award in 1991. He is a Fellow of the IEEE. From 1993-2000, he served as a Technical Editor of IEEE Personal Communications Magazine. From 2009-14, he was an Associate Editor of IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking. In 2000, he helped found StrataLight Communications, where he served as Chief Scientist from 2000-2003. StrataLight was acquired by Opnext, Inc. in 2009.