- Archival publications
are those designed to preserve and store the information they contain for
future use, as well as to distribute the information to subscribers at the
time of publication. To merit the storage and maintenance of such
publications for long times in archives such as libraries, contributions
usually are reviewed before publication by peers of the authors to
determine whether or not the contributions seem appropriate to distribute
and to archive.
- American Standard Code for
Information Interchange, represents a set of standard text characters as
8-bit binary numbers. The set of 256 characters includes lower case and
capital Latin letters, the digits from 0 to 9, standard punctuation marks
and several special characters. ASCII text is supported by essentially
all contemporary computers and hence serves as a bare-bones (no text
formatting) common language for communicating between computers with
different operating systems. For example, typical Windows, Macintosh and
UNIX computers all have software for producing and displaying ASCII text
- software designed to
display files available on the World Wide Web. Browsers typically handle
HTML and multimedia files, but can be configured to accept, in addition,
more specialized file types. Although initially designed to display files
on the World Wide Web, browsers can display files that reside on locals
disk drives, as well.
- Compact Disk - Read Only
Memory, a widely used means of accurately and inexpensively storing digital
data for distribution and subsequent use. Initially, CD-ROMs were used
mainly for distribution of digitally recorded music. Later, they proved
useful for distributing software, multimedia and other digital data
specifically intended for use with computers.
- File Transfer Protocol, the
process by which files can be transferred between computers on the
Internet. Most browsers permit files to be downloaded from an FTP server
on the Internet to a local disk drive. Uploading a file to an FTP server
from a local disk drive usually requires additional software.
- Graphical User Interface, a view
of computing resources in which various kinds of files, including software,
are represented by small pictures, or icons. Manipulation of the files is
achieved by manipulation of the icons with a mouse. Command line
interfaces to computing resources, in contrast, present the user with a
symbolic prompt when the computer is ready to accept typed commands. A
major difficulty with command line interfaces is that users are required to
remember what commands are acceptable in a particular context. The icons
in a GUI, on the other hand, suggest to users what the computer is ready to
do. Not only do GUIs permit users to rely less on their memories, GUIs
demand less advance knowledge of what is possible in a given context and
thus encourage interactive exploration of the available resources.
- HyperText Markup Language, a
language for writing documents that appear on the World Wide Web. HTML
documents are stored as ASCII text files. Special features of the document
are indicated by HTML tags, which consist of <text within brackets>.
To make a portion of text appear in bold face type, for example, the HTML
tag <B> must appear just before that portion begins and the tag </B>
must appear just after it ends.
- HyperText Transfer Protocol,
the set of rules for communication between WWW servers and WWW browsers.
- originally a
contraction of the term hypertext link, a construct that makes it possible
to jump from one place in a text document to another. Subsequently, the
term hyperlink has come to include hypermedia links to multimedia resources,
as well as links to text. In an HTML document, a hyperlink can be
represented by underlined text of a different color. Clicking on this
hyperlink, for example, takes you to the URL entry in
this glossary, where you will find a hyperlink to the IEEE home page on the
WWW. Usually, the term hyperlink is contracted further simply to the term
- a world-wide network of
- a group of computers that
can communicate with each other.
- relative addressing
In an HTML document, the opposite to absolute addressing of files on a local
disk, such as a CD-ROM. Suppose, for example, that a table of contents HTML
document of a CD-ROM lies in a subdirectory /CONTENTS/ of the root directory
and that a link in the table of contents document is to refer to a file,
INDEX.HTM, in the subdirectory /099/CDROM/. Using absolute addressing in the
table of contents document, we would refer to the file as
FILE:///099/CDROM/INDEX.HTM. Using relative addressing, however, we would
refer to the file as ../099/CDROM/INDEX.HTM. The characters ../ move focus
up one level of the directory structure, out of the subdirectory /CONTENTS/,
into the root directory of the CD-ROM. From there, the remainder of the
address, CDROM/INDEX.HTM, leads to the file. With relative addressing,
therefore, all movement through files is relative to an entry point in the
CD-ROM structure. The root directory is never referred to explicitly.
Using relative addressing in HTML documents on a CD-ROM thus circumvents the
problem that different operating systems refer to the root directory in
different ways and hence require different path formats for absolute
addressing. Relative addressing hence should be used in all HTML documents
on a CD-ROM intended for use on multiple computer platforms.
- a computer placed on a
network to provide files and services to other computers on the network.
- Universal Resource Locator, the
address of a resource, sometimes called a site, on the Internet. All URLs
for WWW sites begin with the prefix http://. The URL for the IEEE home page
on the WWW, for example, is
http://www.ieee.org. All URLs for FTP
sites begin with the prefix ftp://. URLs for files on local disk drives use
the prefix file://.
- World Wide Web, a visual and aural
perspective of the Internet. Often, the WWW is shortened to simply "the