of the BHP Cannington Silver mine and her team is currently commercialising their systems. Her group were the first team to successfully fly superconducting systems. Cathy has a world class reputation in her field being a Fellow of the Institute of Physics in the UK and President of the Australian Institute of Physics.
Dr. Foley is well known for her interests in physics, science education, women in science, science in the media (she was a regular weekly guest on ABC radio 2BL radio for 5 years). She has been recently involved in developing the passion for science within CSIRO and renewing what it is to be a scientist. She was awarded the Public Service Medal and Eureka Prize in 2005 and is the IEEE CSC 2007-2008 Distinguished Lecturer, which is an international honour. Dr. Foley's lectures follow:
"No research is ever wasted - my brilliant career!"
Cathy Foley will talk about her story of becoming an applied physicist starting with her research at Macquarie University in indium nitride thin films. She will then talk about her work at CSIRO in magnetics and superconductivity and the development of fundamental science that she has developed and commercialized.
She will finish of with some discussion on what it is to be a scientist and engineer and talk about some of the exciting opportunities and experiences she has had by being part of the national and international science and engineering profession.
Cathy Foley is graduate from Macquarie University where she did her BSc (Hons) Dip Ed PhD. She has been working at CSIRO for the last 22 plus years. She is the Research Program Leader for the Materials Physics, Instrumentation and Engineering Research Program of CSIRO. She is responsible for about 100 people. Cathy has worked in solid state physics and its application. Areas of research include: semiconductors, magnetics and superconductors. She was awarded a Public Service Medal and the Eureka Prize for the promotion of science both in 2003. She is the 2007-2008 USA IEEE Distinguished Lecturer. In 2007 she and her team won the CSIRO Medal for Research Excellence for the Superconducting system for mineral exploration. She has been involved in promotion of science and women in science over her whole career and is currently the Australian Institute of Physics President.
Superconductivity: Has it changed or touched your life?
Superconductivity has been around for nearly 100 years. It was mostly thought of as a laboratory curiosity and yet this research area has won 6 Nobel Prizes in physics and has a very large number of scientists and engineers working in the research field.
I will discuss the history of superconductivity which operates only at either “high” temperatures of minus 200 degrees Celsius (discovered 20 years old this year) and “low” temperatures of about minus 270 degrees Celsius (96 years old this year).
I will explain what it is, what is understood and what is not about this exciting but baffling property of many materials when they are cooled down past a critical temperature. I will look at applications such as MRI, mineral exploration, Magnetoencephelography, transport and power distribution and use in the development to fusion as a future energy source. I will then look into the future to see where superconductivity will play a role in the modern world including quantum computers and quantum teleportation and ask whether superconductors, that operate at room temperature and do not need cooling, are possible.
SQUIDs in Geomagnetism and Prospecting
Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) applications using geomagnetism were considered from the earliest days since their invention by Jim Zimmerman and Arnold Silver in 1966. A benchmark workshop chaired by Harold Weinstock and William Overton in 1980 set out the full potential of SQUID use in geophysical prospecting and identified a wide variety of applications where SQUID-based systems have the potential to make significant contributions. This was followed by John Clarke’s review where low temperature devices, which use helium cooling (LTS), were discussed. Unfortunately the exploration industry did not widely adopt this technology except for SQUID magnetometers for rock magnetism. Howver, the development of liquid nitrogen-cooled (HTS) SQUIDs during the 1990’s led to a renewed interest in their use in mineral exploration. Since then, SQUIDs have become a common choice as a receiver for various geo-prospecting techniques. Their potential, as well as the improvements in their electronics has seen both LTS and HTS systems gaining acceptance and wide usage. This paper considers the impact of SQUIDs on mineral exploration techniques and briefly describes their use in some applications. It will consider the recent development of SQUIDs for Transient Electro-Magnetics (TEM) in detail. A case study will be presented that outlines the 13 years of development that has led to a commercial system responsible for various mineral discoveries. Technical aspects of the required system and device innovations will be discussed. The renewed development of SQUID magnetic tensor gradiometery will also be reviewed including the exciting research undertaken by various research groups.
Are all HTS Josephson junctions the same?
Josephson junctions are the basis of all active superconducting electronics. Since the discovery of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials and YBCO, in particular, a number of different methods of junction fabrication have been devised on a range of different substrates; grain boundary step-edges, bi-epitaxial, bi-crystal and ramp junctions are common examples. The properties of these junctions vary with differences in the range of critical currents and normal resistance that are achievable, their response to magnetic fields and the amount of s-or d-wave phase shifting across the junction. Superconducting electronic applications are broad ranging including SQUIDs for magnetometry, gradiometry, macroscopic quantum state formation for quantum computer qubits, and microwave and terahertz resonators and detectors. However the requirements of the Josephson junction for each of these applications are quite different. This paper will review four different Josephson junction types and what their properties are by considering the impact of the junction morphology and the substrate material on their demonstrated characteristics. We will report on various devices fabricated at CSIRO and use some data from the literature. We will show that these different junctions have different s- and d-wave contributions as well as other properties that make different junctions more appropriate for each specific application in superconducting electronics.