Style for IAS Conference and Transactions Paper


The style described below is the style used for IAS Transactions papers, and for papers presented at the IAS Annual Meeting.  In the absence of other instructions from Conference Organizers, this style should be used for papers presented at other IAS-sponsored conferences.  However,  in case of conflict, specific instructions from Conference Organizers for the style of papers for that conference always supersede these instructions.  A sample paper entitled “Preparation of Papers in Two-Column Format for the Conference Record of the Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting” is offered as guidance.


1.                  Organization


An IAS paper usually consists of eight major parts. These are as follows, and should always appear in this order: 1) title; 2) author information; 3) abstract; 4) index terms; 5) introduction; 6) body; 7) conclusion; and 8) references. This order should be altered only if the author chooses to use the following additional parts: 9) nomenclature (glossary of symbols); 10) appendices; 11) acknowledgment. The conclusion must always follow the body of the paper and the references must always be the last part of the paper. The requirements of style and content for each of these parts is discussed next.


1) Title:  The title should indicate the subject of the paper as clearly and succinctly as possible.  It is placed at the top and center of the paper on the first page.


2) Author Information:  The name of each author should include a full first name and last name; use of middle names and/or initials is optional. Each author's IEEE membership grade (where applicable), should appear under his name. These parts of the author information should be typed in all capital letters. Finally, each author's business affiliation and complete mailing address, complete with street address or post office box number, postal code, and country, are required; this information should be typed below each author's name and IEEE membership grade in upper and lower case letters.  Telephone and fax numbers and e-mail addresses are optional, but are very helpful to those who will handle the paper later.


3) Abstract:  The abstract is a very important part of the paper. It is used for library purposes and may appear by itself in an abstracts journal and/or be stored in a database. Its contents will determine how and where it is referenced by those who compile the annual indexes of the literature. It should therefore be written with extreme care.

The abstract is a concise, one‑paragraph collection of statements that describes the most significant ideas, procedures, and/or results of the paper.  It typically contains 125‑200 words, but is never longer than is necessary and never explores concepts beyond those actually described in the paper.  A satisfactory abstract will briefly answer these three questions. 1) What is the problem being discussed, and what is the scope of its treatment? 2) What is the author's unique approach or important contribution; and is it primary information, a review, or tutorial in nature? 3) What is the principal result or typical application?

The abstract does not serve as an introduction, nor does it contain acronyms, abbreviations, footnotes, tables, figures, or references. It is indented, then identified by the word ``Abstract,'' followed by a dash, which is immediately followed by the text of the abstract, as shown in the sample paper. The writing style is confined to the passive voice; for example, instead of ``We measured the results of the test,'' the author should write: ``The results of the test were measured.''


4) Index Terms:  Not more than 8 index terms should be on this line, under the Abstract, and on the same line as the heading `index terms'.  These should be selected to entice the data base searcher to look further into this paper.  The index terms may be a mixture of phrase(s) and words, with each phrase and separate word separated from the others by a comma.


5) Introduction:  The introduction prepares the reader for the body of the paper by giving historical and/or background information and by serving as a guide to the author's approach to, and organization of, the material.  The introduction should not be a repetition of the abstract and, unlike the abstract, may be as long as is necessary.

The introduction will serve as the first major part of text, and is therefore the first section of the paper to be numbered, when and if the author chooses to use a numbered heading system (see “Style for Headings” below).


6) Body:  The body of the paper contains the primary message of the paper in detail.  Its purpose is to communicate information efficiently and effectively to the reader.  Frequent guideposts are essential for nonspecialists who want to understand the general nature and significance of the work, and even workers in the same field appreciate clear indications of the line of thought being followed.  Therefore the body of the paper should be broken down into specialized sections that are identifiable by the use of an orderly headings system.

In any breakdown of the body into several sections, the author's significant contribution should be the subject of the longest section; the supporting or peripheral material should be condensed in shorter sections.  This gives proper emphasis to the main subject of the paper and yields a high information density in the overall structure.


7) Conclusion:  The conclusion should be a clearly stated finish to the paper and should cover the following.  What is shown by this work and what is its significance?  What are the limitations and advantages of the information?  Where applicable, the following points should also be included: applications of the results and recommendations for further work.


8) Nomenclature:  The nomenclature consists of the symbols and the meanings of those symbols used in the paper.  The symbols are indented from the left margin; the symbols are separated from their definitions by space only; the first letter of the definition is always capitalized, with the other letters lower case; the abbreviation for the units in which the defined quantity is expressed is enclosed in parentheses; each definition is ended with a period; and no articles (introductory words such as “the” or “a”) precede the definition.  An example follows.




Ei         Initial energy (J).

M0        Initial drop mass (kg).

M2        Sibling mass (kg).

M1        Residual drop mass (kg).


When used, the Nomenclature section follows the Index Terms and precedes the Introduction.


9) Appendices:  Mathematical details that are ancillary to the main discussion of the paper, such as many derivations and proofs, are among the items to be placed in the appendices.  Other items that bear on or support the topic as developed by the author may also be included in the appendices.


10) Acknowledgment:  If the paper deals with prior work of other author(s), and/or if others have made important contributions to the paper, this fact should be clearly stated in the acknowledgment section.  If contributions by others are a substantial portion of the paper, consideration should be given to their inclusion as coauthors.

Acknowledgment of financial support (e.g., grants or government contracts) should appear as a footnote to the title or to the introduction of the paper.  However, in no case should it appear in the abstract.  Footnotes should be avoided as far as possible by integrating that information into the text.


11) References:  Reference information must be complete.  Titles of papers must be given, as well as beginning and ending page numbers, where appropriate.  Normally, references should be commonly available publications.  See the sample paper for further instructions on the use of References.


2.                  Style for Headings


An organized headings system serves to divide the body of the paper into clearly marked sections that help the reader to find areas and items of the paper that interest him.  They also help the author to develop the topic in an orderly manner, with the focus of each division of the paper indicated by its heading.  The heading system should follow IEEE style and also should be consistent in the author's use of wording.


1) Primary Heading:  A primary heading is separated from the text that follows by one full line of space, is centered above that text, and is in small capital letters.  When enumerated (author's option), the primary heading is assigned a roman numeral followed by a period.  Note:  Once an author begins enumeration of the headings, he must continue the enumerated headings style throughout his paper (in the manner described in this section).  An example of a primary heading follows.


I. Primary Heading


2) Secondary Heading:  A secondary heading is separated from the text that follows by one line of space.  It is flush with the left margin, with initial letters of all words capitalized; the rest are lower case.  Enumeration of the secondary heading is in capital letters followed by a period.  The entire secondary heading is italicized.  An example of a secondary heading follows.


A. Secondary Heading: An Example


3) Tertiary Heading:  A tertiary heading is the same as a secondary heading, except that the heading is not separated from the text; it is joined to it by a colon.  The tertiary heading is enumerated using Arabic numerals and a closing parenthesis.  It is indented once and italicized.  An example follows.


1) Tertiary Heading:  This is an example.


4) Quaternary Heading: A quaternary heading is styled the same as a tertiary heading, excepting the following.  It is indented twice; only the first word of the heading is capitalized; and it is enumerated using lower case letters followed by a closing parenthesis.  An example follows.


a) Quaternary heading:  This is an example.


3.                  Style for Figures and Tables


The following are the criteria the author should use in preparing figures and tables for an IAS technical paper. References to reduction are of concern mainly to those authors using the Transactions format, but authors of papers using the conference paper format should heed the intentions of these instructions nonetheless. (For an example of a properly constructed figure and/or table, please see the sample conference paper.)


1)                  Page space is costly.  All unessential figures and tables should be eliminated.  The author should combine the information of different tables and/or figures whenever and wherever it is practical and possible.

2)                  All figures and tables should be numbered consecutively and should be mentioned in the text in the order of their appearance.

3)                  Figure captions should be centered neatly below their respective figures.  Both in the text of the paper and in the caption, the figure should be identified by an Arabic numeral and the word ``figure'' abbreviated.  For example: Fig. 1 (plural is ``Figs.'').  Parts of the figure should always be labeled and referred to using lowercase letters enclosed in parentheses.  For example, in text: Fig. 2(a); in captions: Fig. 2. (leave a space here) (a) Measurement for phase‑controlled rectifier.

4)                  Table captions are bilevel in nature and are centered above the double lines used to separate the caption from the body of the table.  The top line of the caption should be in all capital letters and should identify only the number of the table using a Roman numeral.  For example: TABLE I.  The lines of the second caption should be centered below the top caption in all capital letters.  This second caption should describe briefly the information of the table.  For example: SPARK‑RELATED CHARACTERISTIC TIMES.

Note:  Both figure and table captions should use as few words as possible.

5)                  In the single-column Transactions format, because the figures are kept separate from the text, the author should write his name and the figure number lightly on the back of each figure, or on an unused front margin, for identification.  Care should be taken to ensure that in doing so the author does not indent or damage the front face of the figure.

Tables may be inserted into the text of the Transactions format, as long as they are simple and brief.  Longer, bigger, or more complicated tables should be separated from the text.

Note:  All figure captions for the Transactions format must be separated from the figures and be typed on a separate sheet of paper to be inserted after the references, at the end of the paper.  Transactions figures must be clean of any unnecessary lettering and/or labeling.

6)                  In the conference paper formats the figures and tables should be inserted in the text at appropriate points.  This could mean that the author will have to reduce his/her figures and tables to fit the column width of the format being used.  If fitting the figures and tables into the text becomes difficult, it is acceptable to place these figures and tables after the references, at the end of the text of the conference paper.

7)                  All lettering used on/in figures and tables should be large enough to be visible.  This final size should never be less than 3/64 in (1.2 mm) high.

8)                  The size of the lettering used for figures and tables should be kept uniform throughout the paper, so that the reduction size can be determined easily and consistently and so that the paper will be harmonious in appearance.  Large lettering on simple, uncrowded figures permits maximum size reduction and best overall use of space.  Hand lettering should be avoided, if possible; but if necessary, must be done neatly in black ink.

9)                  Line drawings should be made using a computer aided graphics program if possible.  If such a program is not available to the author, the drawings should be made with black ink on clean, white paper or tracing cloth.  Care should be taken to avoid smudges and inkblots.

10)              Photographs and photographic prints are acceptable, but should be black and white with a glossy finish.  All photographs and photographic prints must be positive; negatives are not acceptable.

11)              Figures should never exceed 8½ x 11 in (21.6 x 27.9 cm).  The author should never use original figure sizes that will require more than a 2:1 reduction.

12)              Graph‑type figures should show only the major coordinate lines; and the author should use short “ticks” that extend but a short distance from the axes, for convenience in reading intermediate values.  Two or more simple graphs having the same scale often may be combined to save space and increase effectiveness.


4.                  Style for Mathematical Notations and Equations


Handwriting of all letters and symbols that can be typed should be avoided; but if necessary, hand lettering must be done neatly in black ink.  To prevent errors by readers (and, later, by the editorial staff and printer of papers used in Transactions), subscripts, superscripts, Greek letters, and other symbols should be identified very clearly, with explanations included wherever ambiguity may arise.  The following are examples of terms that often are confusing.


1.                  Capital and lower‑case letters, when used as symbols.

2.                  Zero and the letter “o”.

3.                  The small letter “l,” the numeral one, and the prime sign.

4.                  The letters “k” and kappa; “u” and mu; “v” and nu; and “n” and eta.


Vectors and matrices should be in boldface type, if available to the author.  Symbols, markings, and/or lines (except underlining) below letters should be avoided.  A new symbol for a complicated expression that will be repeated often should be introduced in the text.  Care should be taken in the use of solidi (slants), vertical bars, radical signs, parentheses, and brackets to avoid ambiguities in equations.  The author should adhere to the conventional order of brackets: {[(.)]}.


When fractions are typed on one line, ambiguities often arise.  For example, ½ r may mean 1/(2r) or (½)r.  The author should use the devices at his disposal to ensure that his meaning is not misconstrued.


To facilitate the reading of numbers and to eliminate confusion arising from different uses of the comma and the period in different countries, IEEE editorial practice is to separate numbers consisting of more than four digits with a space.  Such numbers are separated by the space into groups of three, counting from the decimal sign to either the left or the right.  Examples are as follows.


12 351    7465    9.216 492


If the magnitude of the number is less than unity, the decimal sign should be preceded by a zero; for example: 0.102.


Where more than one equation is displayed in the paper, the author should be consistent in his style for fractions: either built up or broken down.  Equations should be separated from the text with a line of space above and below, and numbered consecutively.  The numbers should be enclosed in parentheses and flush with the right margin.  In text the equations should be referred to only by their number in parentheses. The word “equation” precedes the number in parentheses only when used at the beginning of a sentence; for example: “Equation (23) enables us to write (17) in the form...”.

Samples of typical equations with concluding text are as follows.









                   firing angle of upper and lower thyristor group

i = 1, 2;

ui                     commutation overlap angle of upper and lower thyristor group

i = 1, 2;

toff                     thyristor turn-off time



5.                  Style for Units and Abbreviations


The use of the International System of Units (SI units) is preferred for use in IEEE publications because of its international readership and inherent convenience in many fields.  This system includes as a subsystem the MKSA units, which are based on the meter, kilogram, second, and ampere.  If an author expresses quantities in British‑American units, he is urged to give the metric equivalents in parentheses; for example, “a distance of 4.7 in (11.9 cm).” However, this practice may be impractical for certain industrial specifications, such as those giving conduit sizes or power ratings of motors.


All units should be abbreviated when they appear with numerals; for example: 480 V or 18 ft. Units are written out only in such cases as “...the distance in inches is measured from...”. See units for a list of unit abbreviations.


The unit of frequency used in IEEE publications is the “hertz” rather than “cycles per second.”


The use of abbreviations, other than for units, is optional.  Authors should avoid carefully abbreviations that are not generally accepted.  All abbreviations and acronyms must be defined where first mentioned.  Abbreviations and symbols used on illustrations should conform to those used in the text.


1.                  Word Usage


It is most important that the paper be correct, concise, and clear.  Attention to grammar fosters clarity.  Here are some suggestions on usage.

1.                  Write in complete sentences.

2.                  Avoid jargon.  Introduce new terminology only when it is indispensable.

3.                  Do not write one‑sentence paragraphs.  In revising, combine any series of very short paragraphs where possible.

4.                  Do not use slang or contractions.  Avoid expressions that are used only in familiar speech.

No: “Taking a time interval, say, t = t2 – t1 whose quantity...”.

Yes: “Taking a time interval, for example, t = t2 – t1, in which the quantity...”.

5.                  Write in third person; not first or second person.

6.                  Avoid overuse of italics and overuse of quotation marks around single words.

7.                  Capitalize adjectives and nouns derived from proper names, except in the case of units of measures, which are lower case.  For example: “Gaussian noise”; “Cartesian coordinates”; “The Hamiltonian of the system is...”; “The inductance is in henrys.”

8.                  Abbreviations and acronyms should be defined where first used, even those considered by the author to be commonly used and understood.


2.                  Typing


The principal criteria to use in typing an IAS paper are as follows.

1.                  If possible, the author should use a word processing program on a personal computer, or some similar means of storing the text in memory.  Correction, revision, and reformatting of the paper will be much easier with the use of such equipment.  The use of a word processing is almost mandatory at this time, as an electronic version of the paper is required more frequently.  Most laser or ink jet printers used in conjunction with your personal computer will also provide satisfactory manuscript originals and copies.

2.                  The dimensions of the typing space used by the author should be in strict accordance with those prescribed for the particular IAS paper format being used. The dimensions for the conference paper format are shown in the sample paper.

3.                  Page numbers should be centered at the bottom of each page.


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